When growing and feeding pigs at home, the available options are often used. Most often, crushed grain of various cereals, potatoes, zucchini, pumpkin, food kitchen waste, meat, fish leftovers, and yogurt are used. To accelerate growth, farmers try to feed animals with dry combined feed, vitamin supplements. A clear understanding of the physiological characteristics of the pigs, their nutritional needs will help create an optimal pig diet.
Types of feeding pigs in the household
Household conditions involve the use of various liquid mash, which are prepared from the fact that pigs eat. At the same time, food waste of various origins, root crops, and grain mixtures, which are most often subjected to thorough heat treatment, are used.
The composition of such mash is usually added fresh chopped herbs and salt. In addition, in farms, pigs are often given the tops of beets, clover, nettles, and raw shchiritsu. Animals eat such green food with great pleasure.
Dry feeding is an alternative way to grow pigs inside a farm. Grain cereals should be thoroughly crushed, enriched with vitamin and mineral supplements.
In addition, for the formation of a full-fledged diet of pigs in the dry mixtures, you must add pea flour, cake meal, food yeast, green plants that cause appetite in pigs. This method of feeding is common in pig breeding. It requires a lot of drinking water.
In a private household, dry food has several advantages. First, they are easier to cook. Secondly - they are quickly absorbed by the body of pigs. Thirdly, it is easier to utilize pork manure when feeding with dry mixes.
A full balanced diet consists of feed, which must include vitamins. The lack of these substances in pigs leads to a weakening of the body, reduced immunity, diseases. In addition, the development and growth of piglets is slowing.
At home, enrich feed is recommended not only with the help of special additives. Vegetables, fruits, meat, fish residues, green plants are rich in vitamins of the most important for the pork health groups A, B, D, E. In the warm season, animals should additionally eat fresh green food.
In winter, it is recommended to harvest silage based on needles, dried nettle, clover. It is important to add to the daily diet of red varieties of carrots, various types of yeast. This will significantly reduce the deficiency of the necessary body substances.
Dairy products, fish oil, which are saturated with vitamin D, essential for the formation of the skeleton, are of great importance for pork young.
Different feeding regimes
When growing pig breeds, not only what pigs eat, but also the systematization of their feeding is of great importance. It is desirable to give food to animals at the same time of the day at intervals that depend on the age of the animals. In this case, the quantitative component of the feed may differ radically.
Abundant feeding is most suitable for young. In this case, the pig has free access to food all the time. Feeders need to be cleaned of food debris twice a week, when coarse lumps form. Due to the intensive growth of piglets, the danger of overeating is practically non-existent. More details about this can be found in the article "On feeding pigs at home."
Normalized (portioned) food is based on the needs of the animal. Feeding is carried out 2-3 times a day at regular intervals. In this case, the feeder should be completely empty for 1-2 hours before the next serving of food. This technique is best suited for lactating sows, since animals in this state have an increased appetite.
When feeding pregnant pigs of meat breeds, a restriction on food is introduced. Animals are given less feed than they can eat. On the other hand, it is possible to use coarse food, which is poorly absorbed by the pig organism. Adult animals are fed once a day. Limited feeding prevents obesity, improves the quality of muscle mass.
Fattening pigs often start after they have gained a weight of 50 kg. At the same time, animals should be in good health. This feeding technique has almost no restrictions. The main thing - a good appetite, which is stimulated by dietary supplements.
Features of feeding adult animals
Adult boars need fully balanced feed that their digestive system easily assimilates. In this case, the boar (neutered male) is prone to obesity. The main products necessary for his body are oats, beets, carrots, wheat bran, dairy products.
It is recommended to formulate the composition of the diet of domestic boars in the following ratios:
- 75% concentrated feed mixtures;
- 10% of additives containing proteins of animal origin, juicy vegetables, fruits from the garden;
- 5% legumes;
- 10% of kitchen food residues, green plants, oilcake, skim milk, meat and bone meal.
Sow during pregnancy, especially in need of high-quality balanced nutrition. A pregnant pig should permanently eat various root crops, grain mixtures. In addition, it is necessary to enrich their diet with mineral, vitamin supplements, add dry concentrates, meat and bone meal to the feed mixtures.
For pregnant pigs, ordinary chalk, limestone, eggshell will be useful. This will increase the calcium content inside their body. In the first stages of gestation, you should never overfeed animals, and three days before farrowing, the total amount of feed should be reduced by 30-40%. In this case, the concentration of succulent feed should be reduced from the second half of pregnancy.
Technology of preparation of products in the conditions of domestic subsidiary
In the traditional cultivation of the pig consumes cereal mixtures, garden products, food waste, salt. The composition of the liquid mash these ingredients should be included after a certain preparation.
So, it is necessary to enter only the crushed grain inside of compound feed as in an integral look it will be badly digested. One of the main products of the pork ration is potatoes, which must be boiled, and then crushed to a homogeneous mass. This is caused by the fact that the digestive system of the pigs does not process well and assimilates raw root vegetables.
Crushed potatoes go well with cereal feeds, so they are best mixed. It is better to dispose of the water in which this vegetable was boiled. Peas, lentils, beans are also recommended to pre-boil.
Other vegetables rubbed on a coarse grater and in small quantities give as raw food additives. Most often used for this carrot, zucchini, pumpkin and other melons and gourds. If pigs feed on feed, which includes pumpkin seeds and garlic, the probability of helminth infections is greatly reduced. Beets are usually boiled and added to the inside of the mash together with the liquid in which it was boiled.
Preparation of fresh green fodder and combined silos
Particular attention in the preparation of pork ration should be paid to greens. Before you feed the pigs, you must carefully consider and prepare a green diet.
Fresh grass should be finely chopped, getting rid of coarse and dry parts. This improves the digestion of animals and increases the absorption of nutrients needed by the body. Such feed is not recommended to be stored for a long time: it should be used immediately. Hay, stalks of grain plants are recommended to be crushed and steamed with boiling water. Only after this treatment can they be used as food for pigs.
The pig eats very well the silage made from a variety of juicy wholesome ingredients. It is easy to make at home. Sugar beets, cabbage, carrots, green corn mass, and legumes are best suited as useful ingredients. It is important to prepare this product, taking into account several crucial moments.
Each ingredient is most suitable for silage in a particular state. For example, it is better to take leguminous crops before flowering, corn during the period of milky-wax ripeness, and carrots, pumpkins, potatoes and zucchini after full ripening.
Root crops and nettles are not suitable for ensiling. The crushed silage mass must be carefully tamped to remove air. This procedure is carried out using veneered trenches or plastic bags. Remember that frozen, rotten, moldy silage cannot be used to feed pigs.
Yeast as a means of enriching pig feed
Yeast helps to saturate the feed mixtures with vitamins, proteins, minerals. For this procedure, baker's yeast is most often used, which contain vitamins of group B, calcium, phosphorus, and sulfur involved in the synthesis of amino acids. As well as biotin, which prevents the development of skin diseases of pigs, and protein, which is perfectly absorbed by the pig body. Its amino acids significantly enrich the composition of grain mixtures, dairy products, as well as food waste of different origin.
Yeast goes well with different cereal mixtures. The easiest way to yeast - their addition to the composition of liquid mash. For this, the starter and the "straight" methods are used.
In the "straight" version, 100 g of yeast is used, which is diluted in 20 liters of warm water. The resulting liquid is filled with dry food in the amount of 10 kg. This mixture should be left to ferment for 8 hours, stirring every 25 minutes. After this period of time, the solution can begin to feed the pigs.
When leaven, 100 g of yeast are diluted with 5 liters of warm water. At the next stage, 2 kg of combined feed is added with constant mixing. The mixture is then infused for 6 hours. After that you can add 15 liters of warm water and 8-9 kg of dry concentrate. After two hours, the feed solution is ready for use.
Hazard of hazardous substances
The quality and freshness of the feed directly determines the health of the pigs. Despite the fact that a pig often eats pastures, mold, rot, fungus are a serious danger to it.
In addition, some herbs contain toxic substances that can even be fatal. For example, cotton or castor oilcake cakes contain gossypol alkaloid, which can kill animals. Therefore, these plants are better to exclude from the pork diet.
Horse dill, dog parsley, euphorbia, edible buttercup, cycuta, black nightshade are also more likely to poison the pigs.
A separate danger to animals is sprouted potatoes. Therefore, when preparing these root crops, sprouts must be carefully removed. Unpleasant consequences for the health of pigs can be caused by the use of green tubers of potatoes. And in no case should the water in which this vegetable was cooked be given to the piglets.
Boiled beets can not be left in the water for a long time, as it provokes the production of toxic substances harmful to the digestive system of animals.
Pork diet that improves the quality of meat and fat
When raising animals for slaughter the most important criterion is the quality of meat products. How to feed pigs for excellent meat and fat is the main issue that concerns the farmer. All feed can be divided into three groups.
The most suitable for obtaining the most delicious soft meat, dense granular fat feed mixtures, which include cereals, legumes, juicy greens, vegetables and fruits. In addition, dairy products, meat residues of various origins, hay dust from legumes like alfalfa, clover, sainfoin contribute to the quality of meat products.
The second group of feed provides animals with the energy necessary for their growth. These include: corn, wheat, buckwheat, rye bran. On the other hand, such food for pigs contains little protein, and this directly affects their meat.
Oats, soybeans, oilcake have a negative effect on the end result of growing pigs, therefore it is recommended to feed these animals in the first stages until they reach a mass of 50 kg. Three months before slaughter it is recommended to abandon feed of the third group, giving priority only to healthy food.
Feeding pigs for slaughter
As mentioned above, the active feeding of pigs begins from the moment they reach a weight of 50 kg. After that, the animals should gain maximum muscle mass or build up a layer of fat, depending on the breed. Most often, pigs are heavily fed for three months until slaughter. In this case, preference is given to more nutritious foods containing the maximum amount of useful substances. It is important to consider the influence of certain types of food on the quality of future meat products.
For example, for meat and bacon pork breeds dairy products will be most useful, giving the meat a pleasant aroma. On the other hand, feeding the pigs with fish waste during this period will fill the pork with specific smells.
A lot of potatoes, corn, wheat bran in the diet of animals during this period will make the pork products loose and fresh. The abundance of vegetables in the last months of fattening reduce the quality of fat, making it flabby. Thus, some products should be completely excluded from the diet of pigs during the feeding period, giving preference to high-quality feed.
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