Pig hoof structure

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Among other elements of the body, the pig hoof is among the most problematic and potentially traumatic areas. The health of these cloven-hoofed animals plays a crucial role in their economic breeding. They serve not only as a source of meat and fat, but also pancreatin. The latter as a digestive enzyme is of great importance in various pharmacological studies. From here and so close attention.

Features of the structure of the hoof

The pig's musculoskeletal system does not just play a significant role in the life of a pig. Its normal functioning determines its usefulness and effectiveness from the point of view of animal husbandry as a branch of agriculture. We should also dwell on the structure of the hoof and its features as the support of the body.

The hooves of the pig are the tips of hard skin. They are located on the phalanx of the fingers and perform the function of their protection from possible injuries. By themselves, they represent a cornified area of ​​skin, in which different parts have different texture and heterogeneous structure.

Another feature of this site is its layered location. The hoof consists of four parts:

  • border;
  • corolla;
  • wall;
  • sole.

In the role of a border there is a strip having a small width, which passes between the skin above and the rim below.

It is thanks to the border that the hoof is brilliant due to the horny layer produced by it, which has no color. This epidermal layer also covers the rim, which is located below.

In height, the rim occupies about half of the hoof, it is located at the bottom of the border with a wide roller. The largest and most massive part of the claw is its wall.

At the bottom there is a concave plate called the sole. This layer of the epidermis is quite soft, it can be cut with a knife, which plays a special role in clearing the hoof.

Conditions under which injuries may occur

Diseases of this part of the musculoskeletal system can affect pigs at any age, no matter how old it is. They are also indistinguishable in the sexual issue, since both the boar and the young can get problems with the hoof, just as they are affected in sows.

Most pig hoof is at risk in industrial complexes. This is due to the fact that animals are kept in inappropriate conditions. For example, there are often large gaps in the floor, and the coatings themselves are often made of low-quality material. This may be concrete floors with a large number of potholes. During the operation of the concrete may be subject to severe destruction. Chips and potholes, as well as exposed grids, cause injuries in pigs.

Lack of bedding on the wooden floor is also a potential threat to the animal being damaged.

Splinters can stick out of the floor, or there are sticking nails that pigs can run into, injuring varying degrees of severity.

The most common hoof diseases

Lack of bedding and uneven floors can cause injury to the crumbs and soles, as well as rapid abrasion of the horn end on the hoof. On the crumbs, swelling spots of red color may occur, and after 3-4 days this leads to the formation of cellulitis.

Because of cracks in the floor and hooves falling into them, wounds and bruises on the corolla can be observed. The result in almost all cases is the stretching of the tendons. When injuries recur, ulceration of the skin occurs, which over time leads to necrotization and death.

A serious danger is the inflammation of the crumb. In this case, cracks appear on the surface of the stratum corneum, in which soft horny tissue is formed. Because of this, the animal acquires a shaky and unstable gait, the hooking part of the hoof begins to play the main supporting function.

Another serious threat carries purulent inflammation that affects the hoof joint. In this case, there is swelling of the corolla, which brings the pig quite a lot of pain. Indicator of the problems will serve as the state of the fingers. Patients increase in size much, plus fistulas on the corolla are formed.

Among other diseases, cracks appearing on the claw horn and deformities of the hoofs in the form of an elongation of the horn capsule can be noted.

In the article "Anatomy of pigs" you will find information on other parts of the body of pigs.

The main methods of treatment

Many troubles can be avoided if you follow the necessary preventive measures. So, you need to timely change the litter, monitor the condition of the floor covering. If the disease has already occurred, it is important to quickly treat the fingers and hooves of pigs.

After the appearance of spots of bright red color and subsequent phlegmon after them, you should call the veterinarian for treatment. This procedure involves cutting phlegmon and treating the area with appropriate antiseptics.

Softening of the stratum corneum and crumb inflammation can be eliminated on its own without the intervention of a specialist. To do this, remove the diseased tissue and accompany it with a dressing with Vishnevsky's ointment. This procedure is repeated until the animal recovers.

Detection of purulent inflammation of the fingers and joint involves only surgical intervention. Perform this procedure should only specialists. Cracked skin is treated with unsalted fat or tar, which lubricates the problem surface. However, to avoid such trouble is better with the help of preventive measures, which consist in moistening the floorings, pruning horny tissues and bathing animals.

The treatment of many diseases in pigs is associated with quite serious complications, so prevention plays a crucial role. Constant monitoring of veterinarians is the key to success in the livestock sector and the safety of the herd in a healthy way.

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