One of the most developed areas in animal husbandry is pig breeding, since the pig baby quickly grows, develops and achieves the necessary indicators. In this case, the sow often leads 10-12 babies for one farrow. In households, piglets are fattened for 8–9 months. During this time, he reaches puberty and gains weight over 100 kg. Knowledge of the physiological features of the young, their needs, conditions of detention - the key to the success of the farm.
The origin of the word "pig"
From the very beginning of human history, pigs were domesticated. Since that time, these animals have provided humans with high-quality meat, fat, sturdy skin, and stubble. Long since the male, female, the child of these artiodactyls were called differently.
How each representative of these animals is called now depends on the generally accepted classification. The most common names for males are wild boar, boar, hog, boar, and females - pig, sow. Cubs of adult individuals have the common name piglets.
The concept of "pig" is consonant with the German name "schwein", as well as the English "swine", which originated from the Latin "suinus". Many centuries ago, the Latin name of the animal came from the Indo-European concept of "sus". At the same time, the male individual of this animal has long been called in the Latin version "porsus", and the pre-Slavic linguistic form looked like "porse".
The ancient Slavs used the word "pig" for the name of the male pig, and they could name the male pups by adding the diminutive ending "enok". So the name "piglet" appeared.
Over time, this word has become widespread. He began to wear a little representative of the pig of any gender. In addition, the process of the birth of the young of these animals at some point acquired the name of farrowing, and pregnant females are now called pregnant pigs.
Varieties of pork family
A detachment of artiodactyls, a suborder of pigs includes a large number of animal species. These include wild boar, wild boar, babirussa, warthog, forest pigs, many species of domestic and ornamental pigs. At the same time, the child of representatives of all pigs is often called affectionately piglets. The symbol of young domestic pigs are pink piglets. This image is widely used in children's books, cartoons, feature films.
As a result of farrowing, one sow can produce up to 15 babies. Juveniles of different breeds have external differences in color, weight, and anatomical structure. For example, in the Duroc breed, babies are usually red in color. Landrace and large white pigs give birth to pink piglets.
Coloring the offspring of wild boars and mangalica dark color with red stripes on the back. In this case, mangalica, depending on the feeding and conditions of detention, change the color of wool. For example, the piglets of this breed darken in summer due to the loss of the winter undercoat covering the dark skin.
Pigs petren characterizes the spotting of their offspring. Hampshire piglets have a black color with a light stripe in the area of the shoulder blades.
A pig baby at birth must have a certain mass. Its further growth and development, resistance to adverse environmental conditions depends on it. To ensure healthy offspring, a pregnant sow must receive a high-quality, balanced diet.
Within 45 minutes after the birth of a pig should be brought to the nipples of the mother. Pig colostrum contains immune substances essential to the health of her unborn child. Full conditions for newborn animals are the temperature inside the pig's nest - about 28 degrees Celsius, the lack of moisture and drafts.
Due to the lack of iron in the body, babies need an injection of this trace element from the third day of life. In addition, for 5-7 days after birth, the pigs need to offer the first supplements in the form of combined mixtures. It is important to ensure access to clean fresh drinking water. About vaccination, read the article "Vaccinations of pigs from birth."
Piglet weaning from sow
Like every child, a baby pig gets used to the mother's warm milk, through which he receives at least 0.75 liters of fluid per day. Therefore, when weaning off the sow, he needs a large amount of clean warm drinking water, which is better to be slightly warmed up.
Regardless of colors, ginger, white, black, striped or spotted piglets require a quick transition to self-feeding after weaning.
If they do not begin to feed on their own for a long time, then they may experience pathological changes in the mucous membrane of the small intestine.
This leads to digestive disorders, the predisposition of pigs to constant overeating in the future. To prevent such undesirable deviations, it is recommended to give the piglets a small amount of tasty food several times a day. It is important to ensure free access to the feeder for each baby. In the first ten days of life it is necessary to strictly limit the food intake.
If the young pigs begin intestinal disorders, diarrhea, then we must immediately take therapeutic measures. In addition, you should go to therapeutic feeding pigs. Feed must contain essential vitamins, minerals and other ingredients. On the other hand, one should limit the amount of fat and carbohydrates in the pig diet.
Medical diet for a pig looks like this and includes these ingredients:
- beet pulp, bran containing fiber to prevent the formation of pathogenic bacteria inside the intestine;
- fish meal, whey powder, potatoes - a source of concentrated protein that is easily digested by the body;
- food acids that improve the absorption of proteins, stop diarrhea in animals;
- dairy components to improve appetite, stabilize healthy intestinal microflora;
- probiotics, prebiotics, herbal extracts, aromatic oils that are part of the industrial combined feed.
In addition, the therapeutic dietary menu for piglets eliminates a large amount of proteins and minerals, because it reduces the acidity of the stomach, provokes diarrhea, violates the microflora of the porcine intestine.
On this topic will be interesting article "Why pigs can gnaw the board."
Important points of content
The room for the pig should be clean, dry, warm. Inside it is impossible to allow drafts. It is best to equip the wooden floor with a slight slope and gutters to remove pork feces. Contrary to popular belief, pigs from early childhood get used to “walking in need” in one place. Therefore, a higher platform is needed for recreation. The litter from sawdust should be changed periodically, and manure should be cleaned daily.
It is advisable to bathe young pigs by watering them with warm water. In the cold season and immediately after feeding such procedures are not recommended. It is advisable to bathe small dairy piglets weaning every five days. The temperature of the water should not be below 20 degrees Celsius.
Kabanchikov, which is taken for fattening, must be castrated at two weeks of age. In other cases, this operation is performed one month after weaning from the sow. This happens when a piglet turns 3 months old. In the warm season, it is advisable for a swine baby to equip a walking area. It is better to place it along the southern wall of the shed, protect the side and install a wooden platform inside. Under such conditions, the young will feel comfortable, gaining weight and fully developing.
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