The environment has a significant impact on the life span of a pig. This aspect will largely depend on the care of the animal at home, on the breed, gender and habitat of the individual. In addition, the important issue of the goal of breeding, for example, a person can only measure one and a half to two years out of 10-15 years of age given to the pig, and this point should be kept in mind. In the article we will examine the factors that are important for increasing or decreasing this indicator.
At home and at liberty
The environment seriously affects the life span of a piglet. Theoretically, a large pig, provided it is provided with proper nutrition and care, is able to live at home for more than 30 years. Naturally, those of them who are bred for slaughter are not living up to such years. If the age of the animal exceeds two years, then its maintenance for economic purposes becomes unprofitable.
The exceptions are productive individuals, those boars and sows, which are necessary to reproduce offspring. Their use continues as long as they can produce healthy and productive young animals. Usually we are talking about 5-6 years of life, during which sows can have about 20 farrowings. After this period, the productivity disappears.
The little pig usually lives less, from 10 to 15 years, the life span of representatives of dwarf breeds is about 8 years.
In the wild, this aspect is corrected by the presence of natural enemies in animals. If we discard the factor of predators and hunters, then wild boar life expectancy can be 20-25 years. This mark is the maximum, reach it only by the most aggressive and cunning individuals.
Most wild pigs die at an early age, suffering from predator attacks and various diseases. Females usually play the role of progeny defenders, therefore, in comparison with boars, they live less, approximately 10 years.
Factors affecting longevity of pigs
Three factors have the most direct effect on the life span of domestic pigs:
- conditions of detention;
- health prevention.
Without a balanced and properly organized food about the longevity of animals can not speak. However, it is important not to overdo it with the amount of food, because it leads to obesity and shorten the life span of the pig.
Comfortable and relaxed living conditions also have an effect on the life of the pig. The room should be clean, warm and dry, always equipped with sufficient area for walking and ventilation. If these requirements are met, the pigs will have no health problems and will live long enough.
More information about the rules of care can be found on the example of one of the breeds in the article "Vietnamese vislobryukhie pigs: maintenance and care." When choosing piglets for subsequent breeding, be sure to pay close attention to their health.
Buying an initially troubled pig does not bode well. If he has any congenital or infectious diseases, the risk of premature death becomes very high.
Castrated males live longer, this is typical for any breed of pigs. Like the wild brother, the small domestic pig lives less than its larger tribesmen.
Lifespan depending on the breed
Genetic data pawned in the breed can drastically affect how many years pigs live, and in both directions.
For example, the average lifespan of landrace pigs may be about 20 years. These individuals are popular in the market, sows are characterized by high fecundity (the number of piglets can reach up to 20 per one farrow), babies grow quickly and gain weight.
Large white pigs can reach the age of 15 years. The breed imported from Britain, which you can read about in the article “Russian white breeds of pigs”, is well adapted to the Russian climate.
Hungarian mangalica pigs can live to the age of 25 years. They are also well adapted to the cold, their characteristic feature is thick wool, as well as omnivorous.
Speaking about how much pigs live in the Vietnamese bastard breed, one should take into account the conditions of their keeping. The breed is clean, but quite demanding in terms of food, any violations in the diet have a negative effect on the duration of life. In ideal conditions, the lifespan can reach 15-18 years.
Among the decorative breeds can be mentioned mini piggy. These small pigs with a height of up to 65 cm can live to the age of 20 years. The key to success here are home conditions, the regularity of veterinary examination and proper nutrition.
The term of life before slaughter
If decorative breeds of pigs are bred more for aesthetics and originality, then pig breeding on an industrial scale is aimed at solving other problems. Breeding of these animals pursues highly practical and pragmatic goals - getting meat and fat.
Just feeding an adult to old age is a very expensive exercise, it takes a lot of food every day to feed it, and it just doesn't make any sense to do so. Only boars and fertile sows are needed for breeding pigs, the rest of the herd is raised for slaughter.
The older an animal becomes, the harder its meat is, which is an indication of a decrease in quality. As soon as the pig was one year old, its further maintenance gradually became more and more unprofitable. Therefore, those breeds that have a meat orientation go for slaughter at the age of 7-9 months. As for meat and grease, then there is a longer period, but not much, about 10-12 months.
Longevity among pigs
Statistics of this kind are rather difficult to conduct, given the economic orientation of the pig industry. Meanwhile, among the decorative and dwarf pigs there are real long-livers.
It is even difficult to imagine that someone will keep at home for decorative purposes, for example, a large white pig that can live for more than 30 years. However, among other breeds their own records for the duration of life are possible.
For example, the famous Hollywood actor George Clooney, Max from the mini-pigs, had a house hog Max 19 years old. The fact is surprising, because usually such pigs live about 8 years. In the Bahamas, the fact of the home life of the wild boar Beiba is well known. He himself has come to one of the local families and has been living as a pet for 12 years.
As you can see, to ensure the long-term existence of a pig can, most importantly, create appropriate conditions for living.
The influence of worms
Ascariasis is a potentially serious danger to the health of pigs, and consequently, their lifespan. In the body of one animal, worms can be in large numbers, moreover, they are capable of hitting all the livestock in a short time.. That is why helminthiasis should be detected as soon as possible, but in addition to treatment, effective prevention should be taken care of. All the details in the article "Ascariasis in pigs."
Begin prevention should be from the premises, which must be sanitized on a regular basis. Disinfection measures should be carried out with a certain frequency, pet food must be thoroughly aired, spirits and drinkers should be poured over with boiling water and the pigs should be cleaned in time.
If the damage has already been identified by worms, the sick individuals should be removed from the rest of the herd. Manure of diseased animals cannot be used as fertilizer, only burned. Run into a common herd of pigs can only be sure that the infection is completely defeated.
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