After examining the pig's skeleton, you can always notice the problems in the development of pigs, injuries and provide first aid. Information about the structure of pigs will help you take better care of the pigs. You will be able to learn their strengths and weaknesses, learn how to protect children from dangers and improve the "level of health" on the pig farm. Ultimately, this knowledge will be the key to improving productivity in the economy, and, consequently, to an increase in profits.
The main sections of physiology
In pigs, anatomy (the science that studies the structure of living organisms) identifies 4 parts in the skeleton structure:
Thanks to research in this area, farmers received information about the device of the body of domestic pigs and were able to use it for breeding.
The largest department is the trunk. According to the title, it includes this part of the pork carcass. Includes sternum, vertebrae and ribs. The neck consists of the cervical vertebrae and the jugular gutter. The head region is divided into brain and facial parts. As for the limbs, they are divided into front (chest) and rear (pelvic).
An interesting fact is that some of the anatomical characteristics of piglets are similar to the human body, which allows scientists to use pigs for medical experiments. All the details in the article "Anatomy of pigs." It is also important that wild and domestic piglets have the same structure, so we will not consider them separately.
General information about the head office
The skull of a pig is characterized by massiveness, great weight, but, most importantly, that, depending on the breed, the head of the pigs has a different shape. In total, the piglets face forms 19 bones, 12 (paired) of which belong to the facial area, and 7 (unpaired) - to the brain part.
The bones forming the head have a lamellar structure. Some of them are mirrored, for example, parietal, temporal, frontal, maxillary, incisive, palatine, pterygoid, lacrimal, nasal, zygomatic, dorsal and nose conchs. But the occipital, wedge-shaped, mezhtemennaya, trellis, vomer, hyoid and proboscis - belong to unpaired bones.
The main task of the cranium is to protect the brain, as well as the systems of sight, hearing, coordination of movement and smell. It is noteworthy that at an early age in the piglets the joints of the bones are clearly visible, but over the years they all grow stronger with each other and the borders practically become invisible.
Growing pigs are also displayed in the proportions of the head: in piglets the brain part is larger than the facial part, while in adult pigs the face part predominates over the brain part.
Formation of the bone marrow part
In the occipital zone is a large hole of a triangular shape, thanks to which the head is attached to the vertebra. Jugular processes depart from it, and in the upper part, where the scales are formed, the occipital crest is fixed. The wedge-shaped knuckle converges with the occipital in the region of the eyes and nose, forming these areas.
Temporal bones are attached to the occipital zone. They are formed by 4 parts: stony, drum, scaly, and mastoid. In the area of the stony section, the parts of the outer, middle and hidden ear are located. Parietal and interstitial plates are very dense and durable. At an early age piglets, they are separated by a seam, but later the plates are connected by a stronger bond.
The bones of the parietal, nasal, lacrimal, palatal, wedge-shaped, temporal and lattice plates grow to the frontal lobe. The ethmoid bone is adjacent to the nose, and the frontal and wedge-shaped plates diverge on either side of it. The older the pig gets, the stronger the skull, but in babies it is weakly protected.
Formation of bone and facial part
The pig's muzzle is formed from the nasal, incisor, maxillary, mandibular, and palatine, bones, and also includes the lacrimal, zygomatic, pterygoid, hypoglossal, proboscis plate and vomer. The structure of the head of piglets differs significantly from other animals due to the proboscis formation. It is located on the bones of the incisors, completing the stigma. The incisal plates are connected to the nose, thus forming the "patches".
The maxillary bone connects the areas of the nose and mouth. The formation of the latter, completes the lower jaw, where the main chewing muscle is fixed. Among the branches of the lower jaw is the hyoid bone, which is formed by transverse plates, large and small horns, and a lingual branch.
The upper jaw is adjacent to the cheekbone and tear bones, forming a strong connection. In the area of the junction of the pharynx and the bow, the palatal plates of the horizontal and vertical type are located. Vertical formations connect the sky and the pterygoid bone, where the vomer is attached. All this makes up the jaws of the piglets and their bone-face part of the head.
Education equilibrium organ
The hearing of the sow is extremely acute. It perceives sounds that are inaccessible to man, and all thanks to the special structure of this organ. The auditory system is formed from the outer, middle and hidden ear. Its outer part has no bones, but is formed by cartilaginous tissues and skin folds.
The structure of the middle ear is the most difficult. It is represented by auditory ossicles, fastened in a chain, and a tympanic cavity, hidden in a rocky bone. Between the middle and hidden ear is a barrier - eardrum - septum, about 0.1 mm thick. The bone chain that forms the auditory canal includes the malleus, incus, stapes, and lenticular bones. All of them are bonded by ligaments and joints.
The inner ear is located in the temporal bone. It is formed by two labyrinths: the bone and membranous, filled with perilymph. Damage to the equilibrium-auditory system, one of the most dangerous, as they contribute to loss of orientation in space and loss of hearing.
Jaw Bone Formation
The structure of the teeth in piglets is dictated by the need to capture and grind food. For this reason, their surface is lumpy, which allows crushing solid food and chafing it into smaller parts.
Piglets jaw consists of incisors (6 on the top and bottom side), canines, premolars (premolars) and molars (molars). The formation of the jaw begins from the 20th day of life, and ends at 3 years.
Piglets are born with milky incisors. At the age of 20 days, they have the first hooks. After 10 days, the first permanent tooth erupts in the pigs. All baby teeth appear only by day 90, and by the fifth month permanent premolars grow.
By the end of 1 year of life, the pigs lose all their milk teeth, and molars grow in their place.
Piglet jaw renewal occurs in one to two months. All the same, molars appear by 1.5 years. But, after only 6 months, the chewing hillocks are visibly erased, and after a year, the hooks are shortened. In this case, the canines only increase in size, and by three years reach 4–5 cm. The length of the canines in boars is longer than in sows.
The skeleton formed by skeletal (supporting) bones is called the spine. It performs several functions: protective - protects organs, and frame - it accounts for the main load of the entire body of the mumps. The vertebrae forming this system are divided into two groups. The first - supporting, the second - channel. The spinal cord is located in the canal vertebrae.
The spine itself consists of 5 parts, uniting 52-55 vertebrae. Cervical region, includes 7 pits. The chest consists of 14-16, the lumbar consists of 6-7, in the sacral there are 4, and in the caudal there are from 20 to 22 vertebrae. The ribs move away from the central bone (14, less often 16 pairs). Together, they form the chest where the heart and lungs are located.
The ribs are always the paired bones of an arched shape. They are joined to the spine with a movable joint and are located on either side of it. The upper pairs are less mobile, and towards the bottom of the spinal column, the mobility of the ribs attached to it increases. The main feature of vertebrae in piglets is that they are massive but short.
Peripheral skeleton device
The peripheral skeleton is the limbs of a piglet. It is formed by paired pectoral and pelvic parts. The function of this fraction is intuitively understandable - movement in space.
Curious is the fact that, in spite of their short legs, the pigs not only move very well over land, but also move well in water.
The front limbs are attached to the spine by means of the shoulder blades connected to the frame in the region of the first rib pairs. The legs of pigs are formed by the humeral, forearm, radial, ulnar, carpal, metacarpal bones and phalanges of the fingers. Their limbs are completed with 4 fingers, 2 of which touch the ground.
The pelvic, or posterior, limb of gilts forms the iliac, pubic, sciatic, femoral, tibial, peroneal, plyusny, plus bones, and the patella and phalanxes of the fingers. The hind legs of the hind limbs are similar to the front.
The piglet's hoof is the third phalanx of the third and fourth fingers. It serves to protect bones from injury when in contact with the ground.
From the point of view of physiology, the claw is formed by horny skin, which differs in structure and constitution, depending on the location.
In total, 4 hooves are distinguished: rim, rim, wall and sole. Border is called a strip of skin that separates the hair on the feet of pigs. Further, the corolla is located - a wide cushion, half the size of the hoof. The corolla is connected to the hoof wall by means of a tubular horn.
The "wall" itself grows into the periosteum and completely covers the claw bone. On the underside of the wall, completing the formation of the claw, there is a sole, shaped like a concave plate. Particular attention should be paid to the structure of this part of the piglets, since if the base or hoof wall is damaged, the mumps experience pain, which makes them difficult to move. Read more about this in the article "The structure of the pig hoof."
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