Constant breeding work in the pig industry is necessary for the preservation and improvement of the productive indicators of animals. Without this, the industry itself could not exist, because it is successful only when the herd consists of healthy pigs. In addition, they must meet market demands: have good meat and fat, bring numerous strong offspring. Changing housing conditions, new technologies also require genetic improvement of pigs.
Value of Work, Plants and Lakers
Modern industrial pig breeding is extremely intense. It is characterized by harsh demands and high expectations for animals. Therefore, the improvement of rocks is ongoing. This is mainly done by loudspeakers and breeding plants. In large farms, it is not uncommon to create their own breeding farms where they grow rearing. However, different structures have different functions.
In breeding factories, they are mainly engaged in improving existing breeds, creating new lines and families, making an assessment of their qualities. They also check the productivity of females and males, the value of the offspring obtained from them.
Still plants supply young animals to the station for breeding and artificial insemination, to breeding farms pig farms. Farm, in turn, bred animals, relying on piglets obtained from plants. It also analyzes the indicator of productivity of pigs, the quality of their meat, the rate of growth and weight gain.
Reproductive farms on an industrial scale produce pigs intended for fattening. Breeding work is carried out here, but is aimed at obtaining numerous offspring with the best data.
Today, the main directions of breeding work is to increase the meatiness of pigs and their adaptation to non-charitable keeping.
Influence of genes and living conditions
When breeding animals, it should be borne in mind that some features are directly related to genetics, while others are more dependent on the quality of care, the environment. They are divided into physiological and morphological.
The first reflect the functioning of the body. They can be used to evaluate the milkiness of the breeding sow, the viability of the piglets or the digestibility of the food. Morphological signs are the constitution of an animal, meat qualities, appearance.
The ability of the breeding pig to fatten, the amount of meat and fat almost completely depend on the genes. But reproductive abilities, milkiness, on the contrary, are inherited only to a small extent. They are greatly influenced by food and living conditions of animals.
Thus, the selection of pigs by itself does not solve all problems. It is necessary to create the best conditions so that the valuable qualities embedded in the genes can be fully revealed. Analyzing the heritability of characters, scientists develop methods of animal breeding, make predictions and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of breeding work.
Breeding in pig farms can be carried out by a complex method (includes an index method) and preferentially (it includes tandem and reciprocal-recurrent).
In complex breeding, emphasis is placed on several signs simultaneously. They may have little correlation. So, at the same time, the meatiness and multiplicity are improved, or the thickness of the fat layer, early ripeness and survival of the piglets. Such a selection takes a lot of time and labor, piglets are often rejected.
An improved option is index selection. It is based on a formula that allows you to calculate the manifestation of specific characteristics, taking into account heritability and various related conditions.
With preferential selection, the goal is to maintain one or several interrelated characters at an average level. Usually, the reproductive qualities of pigs, meat or fattening, are regulated in this way. In regards to their technique is most effective. It allows you to quickly display individuals with the necessary data, to create strictly specialized lines of different breeds.
With tandem selection, the desired qualities are improved alternately. When reciprocal recurrent carry out the crossing of individuals with opposite (recessive or dominant) signs. Then the mating continues within the same breed, the line in order to highlight the progressive positive changes.
Pure breeding animals
Breeding pigs in breeding plants and farms can be carried out by purebred breeding, hybridization, or crossing.
At purebred breeding, the best animals of the same breed are selected and mated. At the same time, individuals belong to different families, factory lines. They must be at least 3-4 in a herd of 50 heads. If there are more pigs, it is necessary to have 5 or 6 lines and the same number of families.
A line is a group of breeding pigs of the same breed, which comes from the best representative, has similar features.
Pure breeding includes closely related breeding pigs mating through the generation. For example, "great-grandfather" with "great-granddaughter" or second cousins and brothers. This is called inbreeding. The goal - to consolidate the desired quality in the line.
However, in the fifth generation, the severity of the selected traits weakens; therefore, closely related breeding ends in the fourth or even second mating.
Intralinear breeding - within the same line - is usually used on breeding farms. But incest is very strongly reflected on pigs, therefore from time to time it is necessary to resort to a cross country. That is, the mating of breeding pigs belonging to different lines.
Creation of crossbreed
A common method of breeding animals is crossing. Thanks to him, they get strong, hardy young animals with good productive qualities. The method consists in the pairing of representatives of different breeds. Their offspring is called crossbred.
- converting (absorption);
With introductory crossing, females of the breed that they want to improve are taken and mated with males of another breed. Do this once, after which the same procedure is carried out with the obtained cross pigs in 1-2 generations. Such a crossing is also called blood flow.
The purpose of industrial crossing is to create high-quality fattening young animals. It combines two or three breeds. In the first generation of piglets, heterosis is noted - higher productive data and early maturity than among representatives of the original breeds of pigs.
Transformational crossing is carried out to modify outbred animals or to fundamentally change the breed. In this case, females mate with improving boars-producers. The action is usually repeated until the third generation of hybrids.
To derive a new line, breed or interbreed type, reproductive crossing is used. Breeding pigs of different breeds are used, several can be at once. Crossbred offspring are selected for further breeding according to the desired characteristics, selecting males and females for mating after their careful evaluation.
Different species, common descendants
Sometimes hybridization is used to improve the breeds - crossing different species. Although today this concept in animal husbandry is interpreted more broadly. The most "bright" hybrid is the Semirechensk pig breed, bred in the Kazakh SSR. Got it, crossing the usual pig and wild boar.
Nowadays, pigs born as a result of mating of representatives of specialized lines or factory planned breeds are also considered hybrids. In the first case, they talk about interline hybrids, in the second - about linear-breed.
Specialized lines of breeding pigs are synthetic and intrabreeding. The first are created by crossing different breeds, the second are derived within the same.
Hybrids get high marks for productivity, vitality, reproductive qualities. Often in this way it is possible to significantly improve the physical parameters of the animal.
If hybridization is used for breeding with the participation of pigs from specialized lines, the fattening data of the piglets will increase significantly - by 10-12%.
Such work is carried out mainly in breeding and hybrid centers (GHC).
Selection of animals for work
In breeding, careful selection of females and males for reproduction is extremely important. Only the best breeding pigs showing perfect productivity indicators go to work.
Animals are selected on the tribe, when they are still small. They look not only at the origin, but also at the speed of development, physical data. Most of all, the potential of pigs depends on the mother and father, but it is necessary to look at the productivity of more distant relatives. Only in this way the estimates and expectations from the young will be correct.
When piglets become adults, the main criteria for selection are the fattening data of the offspring and the productivity of pigs. It is very important in this case, how strong the constitution is for animals, since it clearly shows the health and endurance of the individual.
When selecting pigs for breeding work, they also look at their weight and body length. However, this assessment is carried out when the pigs are not more than 6-7 months - so you can judge the precocity of the young.
Reference cultivation as a way to evaluate an animal
In breeding and conventional farms, the method of control breeding of piglets is often used to assess their fattening qualities, the value of sows and boars.
After weaning, each female takes the best piglets - two boars and guinea pigs. If the goal is to evaluate the boar, its offspring from several queens are taken (no less than three). Up to 4 months of these pigs are kept together with other youngsters, and then they are divided by sex and into groups of 20 individuals maximum. The weight of individuals in one group should not differ by more than 5 kg.
The young stock is raised according to the standards applied to the best breeding animals of the pig breeder. Every two weeks the piglets are weighed. Control cultivation ends when the individuals in the group have reached an average weight of 90 kg. Then they measure the physical parameters: body length, chest width, height at withers. Fat thickness is also measured - on the sacrum, on the withers, at the level of 6 and 7 ribs, at the first vertebra in the lumbar region.
During the control cultivation, animals are judged by their appearance, looking at the amount of food eaten, activity, susceptibility to diseases and other indicators of state and prospects. In the end, determine the best females and males, which are then used as a repair.
Features and importance of bonding
One of the main stages of breeding work is the appraisal of pigs. It allows you to understand how valuable each animal is. It is carried out under certain conditions and according to the established rules. The physical parameters, the origin, the quality of the offspring and the productivity of the pigs are evaluated.
Bonuses are annually completed by all repair youngsters, starting from two months of age. Pigs are evaluated for sale and further breeding. Also, adult pigs of any breed groups, breeds and animals, which are improved with their help. For commodity farms, bonding of the "breeding core" of the population is obligatory.
According to the results of this assessment, animals are divided into classes: elite-record, elite, second, first.
To qualify prepare in advance. Check and put in order all the documents testifying to the origin, breed, growth rate and development of animals. Weigh pigs and increase the nutrition of those who lack. Check the numbers and update them if necessary.
The result of the appraisal is a report on the breeding farm and farms. It contains all the information on the content of pigs bred, analysis and evaluation of breeding work, as well as a plan for future activities for its improvement.
The role of queens in breeding
Evaluation of the reproductive qualities of pigs is very important in breeding. Of course, the requirements for males and females are different.
In breeding farms, on farms, in breeding and hybrid centers, the productivity of sows is assessed according to several indicators. This is the success of fertilization, the number of live piglets born, their growth and weight, milkiness. The latter quality is much more difficult to assess than the yield of cattle. The milkiness of the sows is calculated by weighing the piglets before and after feeding, as well as determining their total weight 21 days after birth.
The quantity and quality of piglets depend not only on the course of pregnancy. The role of the breed, body weight of the pig, its age. As a rule, representatives of meat breeds bring 1-2 pigs more than females of bacon and grease. In addition, the uterus, giving birth for the first time, give on average 1 pig less than pigs 2 and 3 farrowing.
Milkiness depends on the amount of offspring, the nipple development of the female. Also on this indicator, as in general, the reproductive qualities of sows are strongly influenced by conditions of detention.
On males special responsibility
Boars-producers, in comparison with sows, play a more important role, because from them there are much more piglets than from females. If the latter produce a year up to 25 heads of young stock alone, then the males - up to a thousand.
The best boars are usually isolated right away. They are taken for control cultivation and then put into operation.
The value of the manufacturer depends on the activity of his sperm. That is, the more females become pregnant, the better. However, it is more important to assess boars for the quality of their offspring. They look at the constitution, health, activity and meat-greasy data of pigs born to the male. If we are talking about daughters, pay attention to their reproductive performance.
In order to estimate the progeny, the same control cultivation is used. After a year, the pigs can be sent to a special monitoring station to confirm the results obtained.
Read the article "Reproducing a herd of pigs" to learn more about the topic.
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