The domestication of pigs began from time immemorial, and hybridization in pig breeding made this branch of animal husbandry the most widespread throughout the world. Now pigs are bred in Europe, North and South America, China, India, Vietnam, Australia, New Zealand, and Ethiopia. Simple housing and feeding conditions make it possible to raise piglets at no great cost, making a good profit. Many countries effectively solve food problems with these animals.
From the history of the development of pig
Since ancient times, the domestication of various species of pigs began. About 6,000 years ago, these animals were attracted to agricultural work. Pigs trampled into the ground seeds of seeds.
Perhaps, for these reasons, the pigs themselves were dismissive, and pork as food was initially almost never consumed. For example, in ancient Egypt, only the poorest people ate pork, and shepherds of pork herds were not allowed even inside the temples.
The history of European pig breeding has developed along a different path. The Greeks and Romans paid great attention to the cultivation and breeding of pigs, since their meat was especially valued among the higher circles of the nobility.
Pigs were kept in large herds that grazed in open areas. For the night, the herd was moved to pens protecting animals from predators and adverse environmental conditions.
Southern Europeans valued pork, and piglets grazed in the woods. Over time, with this method of keeping these animals environmental problems arose, therefore, gradually this branch of animal husbandry fell into decay.
However, with the development of production around the major cities in the XVII century began to appear the first signs of industrial pig production. Khryushek began to grow and breed inside peasant farms located nearby. At the same time, animals were fed food waste from the kitchen and garden, reducing the cost of obtaining high-quality pork. The peasant calculation was fully justified.
Industrial pork production
In the 18th-19th centuries, due to the enormous rates of growth in industry, requests for the livestock of farm animals changed. There was a need for the organization of large pig farms. The main requirement of time was the maintenance of a large number of pigs in limited territories.
Using the methods of search breeding, a person empirically tried to improve the quality of animals for a long time to increase the efficiency of pig production. The greatest success reached the breeders of England in the XVIII century. Initially, a large white pig was bred, which became the basis of many modern European breeds. The result of her crossing with the Danish pig is a highly productive breed Landrace.
Since that time, the history of the development of pig breeding acquired new qualitative characteristics. There were so-called cores. These are special breeding centers where the breeding core of animals was kept, where they were breeding purebred lines of pigs and hybrids. People tried and learned to get excellent meat, lard, pork stubble and skin in a short time and at the lowest cost. It was then that the zootechnician began to play an important role for the pig industry, and work on the prevention of infectious diseases intensified.
How did the pig industry in the Russian Empire
For the first time, the products of pork production were extensively presented to Russians at the St. Petersburg exhibition in 1829. Over the thirty years that followed, more than a hundred such events were held in various Russian provincial cities. Such exhibitions have become the driving force that determines the direction of development of pig production in Russia.
Pigs of European descent and Chinese breed initially spread through the “cattle yards” of Russia through the Arkhangelsk province, where they were bred from the beginning of the 19th century. Some farms were used as a reproducer, whose only task was to obtain pigs. And, it means that insemination workshops, pregnant sows, farrowing and repair herds have already been created.
During the years 1848-1850, even peasants actively improved the quality characteristics of pigs by crossing them at the amateur level within households.
A serious negative factor hindering the development of pig breeding in Russia was infectious diseases, which led to large losses of livestock. In many livestock farms, they accounted for 20% of the total number of animals.
Territories of successful breeding and rearing pigs
The most developed pig farms were in Kharkiv, Poltava, Kherson, and Tauride regions, which were then part of Tsarist Russia. This was facilitated by a mild climate, excellent forage base of the region. With the help of local sows, many pig species were created, which have retained their popularity to this day.
The agricultural society founded in Odessa in 1828 played a positive role for the domestic pig breeding. With his help, published scientific and practical work of pig. They relied on many large farms, organizing their activities. The zootechnical aspect of the problem of growing pigs has become particularly relevant, thanks to which the prevention of a number of pig diseases has been addressed.
The industrial production of pork within Russia has become massive since the mid-19th century. On farms, with the help of an internal loudspeaker, a closed cycle of breeding and growing pigs took place.
Today, the leadership in the Russian Federation in pig breeding belongs to the Belgorod Region, which occupies 26% of the total volume of the entire production of the country. Further, with a large margin follows Krasnodar Territory, the Republic of Tatarstan, Lipetsk Region.
The development of the industry in the world
Pig production is characterized by high profitability. Pigs do not require a special diet, conditions of detention. They grow quickly, multiply well, and the output of carcass after slaughter is from 70 to 85% of the total body weight of the animal.
Worldwide, pork accounts for about 40% of the production of all products of various origins. The most widespread acquired meat and bacon direction.
The most densely concentrated pig farms are found among densely populated areas with good forage. Areas with developed vegetable production have a particular advantage.
The world population of pigs is about one billion heads. At the same time, the center of pig breeding is located inside China, which has concentrated on its territory about half of all the pigs of the planet. The leading pork producers in the world are the USA, Brazil, Vietnam, India and the countries of Europe where the leaders are Germany, France, Poland, Spain. The pig industry has not developed for religious and geographical reasons in Islamic countries, as well as among deserts.
Is it profitable to keep pigs inside the household
Rural households include a vegetable garden, orchard, farm animals, and poultry. This makes it possible to solve the food problem of a specific family, providing a person with “his own” meat, lard, eggs, vegetables, and fruits.
The maintenance of one or two pigs is fully justified for an ordinary peasant family. The calculation of the cost of growing or breeding pigs is quite easy to do, since it is possible to determine in advance the nutritional needs of animals and create optimal conditions for their maintenance.
The following factors may indicate in favor of growing pigs:
- high productivity of animals, giving up to 85% of production from live weight;
- good fertility of sows, which can result in up to 14 piglets at a time;
- up to 30% assimilation of feed by the body of pigs;
- quick weight gain by piglets in 7-8 months.
Such factors as the correct choice of breed and optimal conditions of housing will increase the probability of a positive calculation of the benefits from growing pigs inside the subsidiary farm.
Optimum conditions for keeping pigs in a private house
Pig breeding for beginners is a combination of some knowledge that helps to successfully grow pigs in the territory of their own household. Piglets should be purchased in early spring, since under warm conditions they grow more intensively. The abundance of fresh greens, root crops in the garden helps to gain a lot of young. Especially the feed base increases in the autumn after harvest. This greatly helps to solve feeding problems.
For feeding pigs, it is desirable to cook the mixture on a cereal basis, adding food debris, fish, meat waste. Giving such food to pigs is possible only after its complete cooling. An adult requires about two buckets of feed mixtures per day. In addition, it is necessary to add chemical elements containing iron, copper, and salt to food.
Green plants like nettle, alfalfa, shchiritsy, clover will be useful for piglets. It is desirable to ensure the presence in the pork food fish and bone meal.
Read the article “What feed the pigs” to be aware of the organization of balanced feeding of pigs.
Thus, the ways to increase the profitability of growing pigs inside a subsidiary farm are a balanced diet and optimal housing conditions.
Tribal pig breeding
Modern genetics in the pig industry provides a competitive production of pork products. Hybrid bred animals increase productivity, profitability of any pig complex. Growing pure lines involved in the farm core.
They are settled away from the main highways and other pig farms. Sanitary-hygienic requirements and quarantine measures are strictly observed on the territory of the enterprise. The proper level nucleus is closely related to international genetic companies, which provide clear instructions governing the efficient operation of the farm.
Nucleus farm works with sperm of breeding boars. After birth, all piglets are identified by calculating the Pirke index, which allows to determine the ratio of body length and legs. The accuracy of scanning, weighing allows you to determine the purity of the breed of pigs.
Thus, the acquisition of breeding livestock in the nucleus farms is the key to a successful pig farm.
Mother liquor equipment
As we have said above, a reproducer (mother liquor) works at a successful pig breeding enterprise. It includes a workshop of insemination, waiting, farrowing, repair pigs. Animal safety is provided by special equipment for pig breeding. Feed is loaded into storage bins, and the automatic distribution system distributes it across pig feeders. Equipment pigsty from drinking nipples to manure removal systems produced by the most modern technologies.
Reproducer on the pig farm ensures the birth of piglets on an ongoing basis. At the same time, its task can only be to reproduce the young or provide a full cycle of pig breeding.
Traditionally, the efficiency of the pig breeding machine is determined by the number of piglets from one sow per year. All the details in the article "On the breeding and rearing of pigs."
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