Today, domestic pig farming is a great way to provide your family with meat products. But not only. With a spacious yard, you can turn the cultivation of pigs in a mini-business and earn good money. This is much easier than opening a large pig farm, but you still need attachments. A business plan will not be superfluous - even if you are not going to become the leader of the meat market, but it is necessary to calculate all the pros and cons.
Why choose pigs
In a private household, rabbits, cows, sheep, goats and others can be bred. However, pigs are the most profitable. Firstly, their meat and fat are eaten by almost everything, there is always demand for it and the carcass is almost completely consumed. Slaughter yield in piglets is up to 90-95%, which is much more than other popular farm animals.
Secondly, pigs gain weight quickly. Having bought a piglet, in half a year you will be able to receive income from it, and pigs can be covered for 8-9 months of life. For example: a calf with meat fattening is given for slaughter at 8-10 months, and it is possible to cover a heifer only from one and a half years.
Third, the pigs are fertile. One sow to bring twice a year to 10-12 pigs, while other animals give birth less often and give only 1 to 4 heads of young.
Finally, the pig is easier to care for and omnivorous. She can feed any food waste. At the same time, food is absorbed by 30%, and in cattle and small ruminants only by 20%. That is, the pig gains more weight with less feed consumption.
Resources to start breeding, placement rates
To establish a business for pigs in your yard you will need the following:
- plot of land where there will be a pigsty;
- utility rooms (the pigsty itself, a barn);
- feed stock;
- cash reserve.
Remember that there are sanitary and veterinary standards for pigs. If you ignore them, you can not only get a fine, but also lose animals. So, all the pigs should be vaccinated, boars - neutered in time. It is necessary to regularly clean the pigsty, to monitor the quality and safety of feed.
According to the requirements of the Ministry of Agriculture, the minimum distance from the pig-breeding premises to the alien area should be at least 10 m with 5 adult pigs, from 20 m - if there are 8 pigs, and 30-40 m - if the livestock is 10 and 15 individuals, respectively.
If you want to have a few dozen pigs, this is already a farm. It can not be organized in a private courtyard. For information on how to breed animals in a pig farm, read the article "Business in pigs: where to start and how to make a business plan."
The territory and premises for the farm
The well-being of livestock depends on the conditions of detention. For breeding pigs will need a suitable room and area for walking.
The pigsty is under construction at the rate of 2,5 sq. m area per adult pig, if the animals will live in a group. If you are planning to make machines, then you need 1.6-2 square meters. m per individual. Sow is always kept separately, it needs 6-7 square meters. m space.
On the territory where the pigs will live, equip the den, where animals spend most of their time in winter. The walking area for summer living should have a shelter from rain and sun. Be sure to make a "bath" to the pigs bathed. All these items require cash investments and depend on your capabilities and desires.
But in any case, the pigsty needs to be built conscientiously, because pigs love to dig under the walls and can even run away. Best of all is a brick room with walls, upholstered in wood or plywood. The floor can be poured with concrete and covered with a bed of straw or sawdust. The roof is ideally tiled, but slate is also well suited, as it does not let in moisture, but at the same time it does not overheat in summer.
Read more in the article "On systems and methods of housing pigs."
What else you need to do in the room for animals
In the pigsty must be both natural and artificial lighting. However, it is not necessary to make it too bright, otherwise the pigs will be worried.
If you live in a region with cold winters, take care of heating. The temperature should not fall below +13 degrees, and in rooms for piglets and pregnant sows below +18.
In the floor there are gutters for the disposal of waste. Also in the pigsty is obligatory good ventilation, but drafts are strictly prohibited. Feeders and drinkers for pigs can be common or group. In the latter case, you need enough space so that each pig could fit freely.
Animals can be kept in a group, but in an amicable way each pig should have a separate pen, and communicate with others on the range. Otherwise, individuals fight, they can even kill small pigs. In addition, it will be difficult to control reproduction.
The cost of erection of the pigsty depends on its area and the construction materials used, but on average 20-30 thousand rubles. You can convert another utility room for it, for example, a shed. It will be much cheaper.
See also: "Do-it-yourself Barn Pig Construction".
The acquisition of animals: how much to take and what
To do home pig breeding, enough to have 5-10 animals. For starters, it is better to take 5, or even 2-3, in order to assess your financial and physical capabilities.
There are many breeds of pigs, which are divided into fat-meat, grease and bacon. In Russia, the most popular is the big white, it is greasy and meaty.
The price of a pig starts from 2 thousand rubles, depending on the breed and the specific seller. It is better to take a few pigs and 1-2 males, then to replenish livestock. In addition, animals can be used not only for meat. Selling young stock is also an income item. However, you should not start with it: the demand for piglets is not as big as for meat, and also unstable.
Take already grown two-month pigs. They should weigh 15-16 kg, be mobile, with shiny smooth bristles and good appetite. About the breeder learn in advance as much as possible. It is better to buy from someone with whom your acquaintances already dealt and were convinced of his good faith.
Feed costs, optimal diet
Animal nutrition is perhaps the most important if you decide to organize the breeding of pigs at home. It affects the health of adults, offspring, the speed and quality of weight gain, which means the success of your business.
Save on food for pigs can not. It is best to use barley, rye, peas, carrots, beets, wheat, meat and bone meal and fish meal, as well as herbs - clover, alfalfa and others for fattening pigs.
"Heavy" products - potatoes and potato pulp, corn, beet molasses, wheat bran, buckwheat - can be given to pigs only occasionally. Approximately 2-2.5 months before the slaughter of the animal, they need to be removed from the menu completely, otherwise the meat will have a taste.
The diet of animals depends on what you want to achieve. If you give a pig grass, legumes and grains, it will gain more muscle mass. If you need to get more fat from grown animals, give starchy food - roots, potatoes, corn.
Feed purchased immediately for the entire time of fattening and stored in a special room. There should not be damp, dirty. Feed contact with any chemicals, access to them by other animals are not allowed.
The price of the issue also depends on the specific region, supplier. Approximately a dozen pigs will need 50-60 thousand rubles for feed.
Sales routes and expected profitability
Of course, pig breeding as a business at home means that you will sell your products to someone. How to implement it, you need to think in advance.
Pork can be sold in small wholesale and retail - trading on the market, donating meat to local stores or simply selling it to neighbors, as is often done in small towns. You can also sell young stock to local livestock breeders or, for a fixed price, offer boar for insemination of pigs in other farms. However, the latter is a side item of income for pig producers. You can do this when the main production is established.
Today the price of pork meat ranges from 220 to 350 rubles per 1 kg. Cost depends on a part of ink and the region of sale. For 1 kg of fat, you can gain 110-130 rubles. In addition, offal products are also popular with customers: pork liver, lungs, heart. The cost of offal - from 30 rubles per 1 kg.
Often pig producers sell the whole carcass at once. Then it is sold at an average of 200 rubles per 1 kg, but the weight is considered without hooves, viscera and head.
So, having grown one pig, you can get about 20 thousand rubles from it. If you subtract the funds invested in the cultivation - 7-8 thousand - the net profit will be 7-12 thousand rubles.
How to make animal husbandry more efficient and increase income
Anyone who breeds pigs wants to get as much as possible from his business. Even if there are only 5-10 heads on the farm, there is always an opportunity to save money, gradually expand production and earn extra money.
You can save money by adjusting the production of offspring from your own sows so that the young do not have to buy. For a household, 1 or 2 sows are enough. By the way, boars for fertilization can be "rented" from other pig farms. It's not free, but cheaper than keeping your own.
The content of pigs in the home as a business can be expanded by taking up the manufacture of pork products. So, smoked foods are always well bought. If finances allow, they buy a smokehouse, but it is quite realistic to build it myself. In addition, you can make homemade sausage, meatballs and much more from pork, and then also sell as ready-made food or ready-to-cook foods.
Over time, your business will start to bring a good income. Then you can think about buying or renting a land plot and opening a real pig farm.
Why do you need a business plan, costing
As any important undertaking, growing pigs as a business requires maximum responsibility. That is why it will not be superfluous to make a business plan.
Of course, if you have 5-10 pigs, you do not need to register as an entrepreneur. This is your personal subsidiary farm, and it is not prohibited by law to sell surplus production. Consequently, the business plan is not mandatory. However, it will help calculate costs, revenues, take into account risks and understand how cost-effective the case will be.
Your pig breeding plan must take into account that costs are one-time, current and unplanned. The first include investments in the construction of the pigsty, the purchase of equipment and animals, feed. From time to time you will have to pay for the services of a veterinarian, to buy something, to remove manure and garbage. Animals may suddenly fall ill, die, or you will not be able to sell all the products - for such moments you need to have a cash reserve.
Calculate how much money you need to do pig farming at home:
- purchase of 10 pigs - 30 thousand rubles;
- construction of a pigsty - 20-30 thousand rubles;
- purchase of feed - 50 thousand rubles;
- equipment for the pigsty and household equipment - 25-30 thousand rubles.
Total for 10 pigs you will need about 140 thousand rubles at a time. Further costs, of course, will be much less.
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