In the meat-greasy (combined) direction of pig-breeding, the Leivan pig breed occupies a special place. She was bred at the beginning of the XIX century, crossing local specimens with representatives of large, white, and also Berkshire. Breeders of the Oryol region retained the basic qualities, and to increase meat productivity, they were crossed with landraces. In 1949, the name of the new species was officially approved, and by 1980 almost 60,000 individuals were already registered.
The lively pigs are characterized by an elongated body, the size of which varies from 150 to 180 cm. The adult boar can weigh up to 320 kg, the chest girth is 160-165 cm (sow differs by more modest indicators - 250 kg and 148-152 cm, respectively).
Livensky breed is characterized by strong addition with the correct forms. The head - wide and short - is planted on a small neck. The profile of animals is slightly curved, the back may be arcuate, but more often it is straight, volumetric. Pig's chest is wide. The abdominal part of the trunk sags a little, creating the effect of obesity.
Distinctive features of the Livensky breed are snub-nosed snout, earrings in the neck, pendulous thick ears, strong bones, strong legs. Most often among these pigs there is a white suit or a white color with gray spots, but there are also black individuals, as well as red and even red and motley.
The skin is loose and folded, abundantly covered with bristles. Perhaps that is why the above-mentioned earrings are formed, which are elongated skin lesions on the neck below.
The productivity of enduring animals with a calm disposition
With the improvement of the live breed of pigs, the breeders wanted to increase the multiplicity indicators, but so far this number is 10-11 pigs per litter, which is an average figure. About more prolific pigs, read the article "On the breeding of Vietnamese pigs at home for a beginner."
The females of the Livnian breed show concern for the offspring - for the period of maternal fattening, the babies add 700-900 g of weight per day (the milk productivity of the female is about 60-80 kg per lactation period).
The weight of a pig at the age of one month is about 7.5 kg, and over the next 5-6 months the young growth increases the live weight to 100 kg. When slaughtering a pig, the meat yield is slightly more than half of the total weight (53-54%). With a properly organized diet, the thickness of the greasy layer does not exceed 3.5 cm. All products have good taste.
A distinctive feature of all meat and greasy breeds is that the body of a pig is 10-15% longer than the breast volume.
When breeding livenskogo breed can be guided by the following figures: animals gain weight up to 100 kg in about 6.5 months (the weight of the back leg - about 11 kg), and the length of carcass is about 93 cm.
Compliance with the conditions of maintenance - a pledge of maximum profit and profitability
Livensky breed of pigs is characterized by endurance and unpretentiousness. Animals adapt well to different conditions and are ideal for keeping in a household.
Animals of this breed will provide the family with high-quality greasy and meat products, and ease of care can be an incentive for the beginning of their breeding. Livensky pigs are peaceful, not inclined to eat their young and do not undermine the floor in pens.
Livensky pigs are well tolerated pasture keeping system that allows you to save on feed in the warm season and makes breeding profitable and profitable. But in the winter they should be protected from cold and damp in specially equipped indoor spaces. This will help prevent hypothermia.
In the winter-stall period, animals can be fed with a mash with various impurities. This may be hay flour, dust. At the same time it is necessary to ensure that they have water, but in any case not cold.
Darkening of the windows in the pigsty between feedings contributes to more efficient fattening. There is no special feeding ration - pigs with appetite eat potatoes, various bulk food, barley, rye, chaff.
Livnie pigs are bred throughout the territory of Russia, due to the high adaptation qualities and endurance of animals, but the most favorable is the climate of the Central Black Earth region.
Although animals with earrings on the neck, at first glance, are not demanding to the conditions of detention, there are certain points that we recommend to pay attention to:
- remnants of uneaten food must be removed immediately after feeding;
- Drinkers and feeders should be regularly cleaned to prevent the spread of infections and various diseases;
- you need to comply with the mode in the diet - this will prevent problems with the gastrointestinal tract of animals and will allow to achieve maximum growth.
The work of breeders to improve the basic characteristics of the representatives of the breed
Livensky pigs are strong enough and highly productive. But breeders do not stop at this. Experts set themselves the task of improving the quality of grease and meat products. Also, breeding work with this breed is aimed at increasing the number of piglets in one litter, increasing precocity and eliminating the disadvantages associated with the looseness of the skin.
Today there are more than 18 lines and 30 families of live pigs. Among the leading ones it is worth mentioning the lines of Tour, Ulvar, Bayan, Mammoth, as well as the Amada, Grace, Recordist and Wonderful families.
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