In Russia, the Belarusian meat breed of pigs, along with the black-and-white and large white, are the most famous. Belarus can rightfully be proud of its pig breeding. Over 100 industrial complexes of this industry operate on its territory. Constant selection of the species is carried out, and their compatibility is assessed. For this, the best genetic materials are used. Their breeds, intrabreed types and hybrids, most adapted to local conditions, were derived.
Breeding breeds - one of the main tasks
In the past two decades, the pig industry in Belarus as a whole has functioned successfully. Unlike many countries of the former USSR, breeding centers for breeding animals have been preserved and actively developed at the present time. The country has research and development institutes engaged in hybrid activities and breeding.
Recently, pigs bred on interbreed basis (hybrids and hybrids) have come to meat processing plants from the industrial sector. They are more adapted to production conditions, have better feeding and meat qualities. To do this, take the best world genotypes.
Much work in the pig industry is carried out on the organization of full feeding, the development of requirements for the quality of feed and their components, the improvement of their structure.
Big, white and most popular
Belarusian large white breed - the most common in their homeland (80%).
Its history dates back to the 19th century, to England, where local pigs and foreign pigs from Italy, Portugal, and China were actively crossing. The first specimens of the obtained white pig were imported to Belarus in the 1930s, and only in the mid-1970s its new Belarusian type (BKB-1) was obtained.
Work continued, the Belarusian breed of pigs improved. For example, the age of attaining 100 kg has decreased from 200 days (1976) to 170 days (2015).
Pigs are distinguished by their large size, rapid growth and reproduction. They have a strong constitution, a small head, erect ears, correctly set and strong legs. The skin has a very light shades.
In their content, special attention should be paid to the temperature regime (it must be warm).
Based on eight different genotypes
Belarusian meat breed appeared in the late 1990s.
The material for its elimination was the genes of eight breeds. Breeders carried out intense and painstaking work using the methods of Russian specialists who also worked hard on meat representatives. For the first time, pigs interbreed very similarly in terms of both external and qualitative features.
Distinctive features of the breed are called large offspring at each farrowing (up to 12 piglets), high, as tastings show, meat-tallow qualities, rapid growth (every day at 735-831 g), resistance to infections.
Externally, Belarusian pigs look very large, muscular, with a developed back part of the body. The head is relatively small, the back is slightly elongated. The skin is almost perfectly smooth, white.
Pied Black Earrings
Belarusian black-and-white breed of pigs has existed for over 40 years. For its breeding pigs were used tempors, landrace, large black and white. There are impurities of wild boar, which gave her endurance.
Pigs of this breed are distinguished by earrings - a kind of rudiment, inherited from their ancestors. They are spotted, very large (boars - up to 185 cm, females - up to 170 cm), proportionally developed, with high fertility and undemanding to conditions of detention. They have a well-functioning reproductive system, the safety of newborn piglets reaches 89-95%.
Black-and-white pigs are raised on large farms and in small private farms. In the summer, they gladly absorb the green mass, graze.
Meat is obtained because of this marble, it has repeatedly won prizes at tasting contests. About this delicacy products read our article "Breeds of piglets for marble pork."
The Yorkshire breed comes from nineteenth-century England. On the territory of the USSR its representatives were brought in 1940-1950-ies.
Belarusian breeders pay a lot of attention to the development of this breed. Her hybrids were obtained as a result of crossing the Yorkshire with landrace, a large white, Belarusian meat. Especially successful are the results obtained with the last two species.
In 2010, a type of Yorkshire breed, Dneprobugsky, was bred in Belarus. Specialists managed to achieve the following indicators:
- multiple births - 11.5–12 piglets;
- Piglet growth - up to 900 g per day;
- the age of weight gain in 100 kg is 165-170 days;
- meat yield - 62-63%;
- salted pork fat - on average 20-22 mm.
In Belarusian Yorkshire, the body length is 162 cm - in boars and 160.6 cm - in sows. Their differences are erect ears, massive shoulders, strong legs and smooth skin. More about them in the article "Yorkshire pigs breed."
Has surpassed both "father" and "mother"
Duroc breed is widespread in the United States. These are pigs of red color, rather large, with good adaptation practically to all climatic zones. They were brought to Belarus in 1987. Since then, continuous work has been carried out to create and improve the intrabreed type ("Belarusian O-1").
First of all, it was crossed with large white Belarusian pigs, which increased a number of indicators of Duroc (increase - by 56-79 g, safety of pigs - by 2-6%). These hybrids gave birth to the largest piglets.
In recent years, breeders have managed to bring the body length of pigs to the class "Elite" (for boars - up to 183 cm, for sows - up to 162 cm), to increase the multiplicity indicator (up to 10.1 heads).
According to expert estimates, the intrabreed type obtained in Belorussia in the Durok breed exceeds by many qualities the purely domestic large white breed by 5–9%.
Not afraid to experiment
In Belarus, great importance is attached to the selective improvement of pure breeds. More than 80% of the young are obtained on the basis of hybridization.
The Belarusian white, black-and-white, and Belarusian type of Yorkshire are used as maternal ones.
Paternal breeds - Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace, Pietrain and, as a rule, French, German selection (the most stress-resistant and strong).
The best combinations, for example, hybrid uterus (large white with Belarusian meat) and hybrid boars (landrace with durocum) are identified. Cross-breeding of boars (Duroc with Pietrain) with hybrid sows of the Belarusian breed of pigs and landraces also gave good results.
Scientists managed to achieve an increase in multiple pregnancy (up to 11.3 goals), an age of attaining 100 kg (up to 170 days), a daily increase (up to 826 g), a meat content (up to 67.5%).
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