The large Russian white pig is within our homeland one of the most popular breeds. It was obtained by crossing English pigs, introduced at the beginning of the 20th century, with domestic ones. It was the first such experiment and very successful. Farmers call the resulting universal genotype the basis of pig breeding. It is actively used to produce new species of breed, which by specialization can be greasy, meat or suppliers of high-quality bacon meat.
Pure white color
Now you can buy pigs of different colors - red, red, black, spotted. Some breeds are individuals, both white and spotty.
The quality of meat skin tones do not affect. It is important that the breed belongs to the meat, greasy or universal direction. The preference for a particular color is mostly aesthetic in nature.
As a rule, since childhood we are used to seeing cute pink-cheeked piglets in books and cartoons. White color is always personified with something good and pure.
In practice, in pigs with fair skin, it is easier to determine the degree of health or pain. Many prefer white pigs, because they are not accustomed to black-skinned fat.
The Russian breeds of white pigs include:
- large white;
- early (SM-1).
Russian white with English roots
Soviet breeders tried to improve the characteristics of a purebred large white breed that came out of England. We tell about it in detail in the article "Breed of pigs is a large white".
Russian white sows according to the constitution are more robust, have increased reproduction and high adaptive properties.
They have an elongated body, a head with a small snout and a neat patch, vertically protruding ears, a short neck, imperceptibly turning into the back. They have a very wide chest, correctly set short legs, developed ham. A hard seta grows on the white and smooth skin.
Russian white breed has the following physical parameters: weight from 320 to 350 kg - for boars and from 250 to 270 kg - for females; breast size up to 165 cm in males and up to 155 cm in females; torso length up to 180 cm in males and up to 165 cm in females. Characteristics of the breed can be supplemented by a developed maternal instinct in females and a rapid increase in piglets.
Rapid weight gain is achieved only if the following conditions are met: a comfortable "stay", proper nutrition. In winter, the room where the pigs live should be heated.
Already at the age of one month, babies can weigh 8 kg, during the weaning period - 25 kg, and at six months of age - 100 kg.
Representatives of the Russian white breed are champions not only in terms of growth, but also fertility. A case of birth of 32 piglets in one litter was recorded.
Slaughter meat output can be 82%.
When choosing this breed you need to pay attention to its main advantages - universality, rapid development, omnivorous, quiet temper, increased reproductive qualities and disadvantages - poor tolerance of frost, direct sunlight, a tendency to obesity, delicate skin and sagging sacrum.
The pig breeding of Russia in the second half of the 20th century was replenished with a new breed - the Urzhum breed, obtained in the Kirov region. The final result was achieved by the breeders for a very long time, many times crossing local sows with boars of a large white type.
Among the features of the Urzhum pigs, there are large sizes with a stretched body and a lightweight front part. An adult male in length can reach up to 190 cm, female - up to 175 cm. On a neat head, slightly stretched snout. The ears are elongated and lean forward. Legs are powerful, but not long. The skin color is predominantly white.
Sows can give birth to 12-15 piglets, which add about 700-750 g per day.
By 6-7 months, the live weight of the Urzhum piglet approaches 100 kg.
Pork meat from Urzhum is a bacon variety. Its yield is 50-60%. Fat is usually 2-3 cm thick.
Breitovskie white pigs
White pigs can be attributed Breitovskoy breed, the leading beginning of the village Breytovo. To obtain it, materials of several genotypes were used, including large white ones.
As a result, the selection turned out large, with a developed rear part of the individual. Boars grow up to 180 cm in length, females up to 165 cm. Wide chest and dorsal part are well combined with well-set strong legs and developed hams. The constitution and description are complemented by long ears and wide ganashes.
Breitovskie sows are very prolific, bring 11-12 heads. Weights of 100 kg piglets reach at seven months of age.
This Russian white breed of pigs belongs to the universal. The meat yield is about half the carcass. It is characterized by color intensity, marbling, high protein-quality indicators.
About Murom breed
The owners of the white color are representatives of the Murom breed. They were obtained by crossing the local inhabitants of farms with large white and Lithuanian pigs.
Murom pigs are good for grazing. Their distinguishing feature is the adaptability to eating a significant amount of bulky feed.
On the exterior, they are very similar to their close-minded relatives - the same strong, large, harmoniously folded. Of the external signs can also be noted: long, eyes hanging down to the eyes, shortish, but strong legs, light head, developed hams.
Boars can weigh more than 300 kg, the weight of the female is about 200-220 kg.
In sows in one litter up to 10-11 pigs can be born, which grow very quickly and by the age of 7 months they gain 100 kg.
Carcass meat ranges from 55 to 57%. The meat is of high bacon quality.
Siberian northern piglets are not afraid of cold
Pigs of the Siberian northern breed are also destined to wear a traditional white color. They were bred by crossing short-eared local gilts with individuals of a large white variety. One of the main tasks of the breeders was to obtain adaptability to the Siberian frosts from the new genotype.
They are owners of a strong constitution. According to the external description, Siberians are very similar to the progenitors: they have wide chest and dorsal regions, expressive sides, and developed hams. Their skin is dense and coarse, has a warming undercoat.
Adult females weigh 240-260 kg, males - 315-360 kg. The length of sows reaches 165 cm, boars - up to 172 cm.
Piglets gain weight well - from 690 to 750 g, in 6 months they gain 100 kg.
The Siberian breed of white pigs is very popular in Siberia and Kazakhstan.
Livensky pigs come from Orlovschiny
There are white individuals among the representatives of the Livenian breed. She appeared for the first time in the Oryol region in 1949. Then scientists of the Liven tribal breeding center were engaged in its restoration.
Pigs are distinguished by an elongated body, whose size can reach up to 180 cm. They are very massive and strong. Boars can gain a weight of 320 kg, sows - 250 kg. On a small head there is a neat penny and thick, hanging ears.
Pigs most often have a white color, but “jumps” and black with white, orange with black. The skin is folded, loose with thick bristles.
Piglets grow intensively, gaining from 700 to 900 g per day. They are unpretentious in food.
Breeders, having achieved good results in improving the exterior performance, tried to improve the productivity and quality of meat products. To do this, Liven pigs crossed with landrace breed.
Early meat breed
The creation of early meat breed (SM-1) is associated with complex breeding work. To obtain it, many of the best representatives of domestic and foreign genotypes were used.
The name of the breed itself speaks of the superiority of these pigs over others in terms of growth rate (almost 1.5 times). It does not require an increase in feed costs. Also note their excellent adaptive abilities.
Individuals of early breed have impressive dimensions. The live weight of males reaches 320 kg, sows - up to 241 kg. The body length is almost 185 cm in boars, which is 17 cm longer than in females.
A wide and strong body is complemented by developed hams. Distinctive feature - slightly hanging ears.
Pigs are born a lot - 10-11 heads. They grow quickly, showing an increase in weight up to 696 g per day. After 177 days, weight reaches 100 kg. Slaughter meat output - up to 64%.
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