In the meat and bacon direction of the pig breeding, the Duroc breed has become very popular because of its tender marble meat, precociousness, and high productivity. As early as the 19th century, a modern species of these animals appeared as a result of crossing the pigs from New York and New Jersey. Pigs from America have spread around the world. Most of the representatives of this species concentrated on the American continent, in Europe and China.
This type of pigs appeared as a result of breeding work with a huge variety of genetic material of pigs, imported from different countries to North America. Duroc is a breed of pigs, the base for the breeding of which became animals from African Guinea. They differed in large size, red color and short bristles.
Initially, they were crossed with pigs from Portugal and Spain. As a result of this breeding work, pigs with characteristic breed traits were originally obtained. It was on their basis that breeding work began to be carried out to improve the breed on a planned basis. In America, two lines were developed in parallel: Duroc and Jersey.
Jersey piglets grew and developed rather slowly, but in adulthood, these animals were large, rough powerful skeleton. Dyuroki of those times was characterized by thin bones, high fleshy. In addition, their main advantage was ripening. By combining the best qualities of these pig species, breeders received a new breed, which was registered in 1883 under the name "Duroc".
Appearance and characteristics
Due to the long-term work of breeders, initially greasy pork breeds from Africa, Spain, Portugal, England, as a result of crossing, acquired more and more meat, bacon traits. This met the needs of most consumers.
At the moment, the description of the Duroc breed has the following characteristics:
- large oblong body up to 180 cm long;
- live weight of adults from 240 to 350 kg depending on gender;
- a relatively small head with forward-directed ears that have curved tips;
- back in the form of a slightly arched arc;
- body color of various shades of red;
- massive high legs with well developed muscles in the field of ham.
With proper fattening, such an American gains weight over 100 kg in six months of life. In this case, the average weight gain per day ranges from 750 to 950 g. After slaughtering an adult animal, up to 70% of meat by weight of pork carcass is obtained. The sebaceous layer above the spine has a thickness of 12-18 mm.
Representatives of the Duroc breed in the warm season need to stay outdoors.
The advantages and disadvantages of the breed
Despite the breeders' best efforts over the years, the Duroc pigs, apart from the advantages, also have weak points.
They are characterized by mobility, they are well adapted to various environmental conditions. A calm phlegmatic temper is a typical feature that distinguishes an adult wild boar or a pig of this breed. The most important value of the economic plan is the precocity of pork young, which in six months gains good weight and reaches puberty.
The uniformity of the carcass, the highest quality of meat products after slaughter pay back the costs of raising animals. In addition, this pig breed is characterized by a high percentage of meat production. Duroki perfectly interbreed with such representatives of pig breeds as landrace, large white pigs. Metis are distinguished by rapid growth, endurance, and resistance to environmental pathogens.
On the other hand, the negative features of the Duroc breed are in the low fertility of animals (7-10 young), their particular demands on the protein diet. In addition, breeders are worried about pathological susceptibility to atrophic rhinitis, incorrect setting of the legs. The most favorable environment for growth, development and reproduction of durok are conditions of a dry warm climate. For more prolific animals, see the article "Growing Vietnamese low-fat pigs."
Choosing thoroughbred gilts correctly
Pure breed of pigs Duroc, the characteristic of which has absorbed all the best qualities valuable for pig producers, is a rarity. Therefore, in ordinary farms to acquire purebred pigs is difficult. This is because breeders for breeding more numerous offspring cross pedigree pigs with representatives of other meat, bacon pork varieties.
When buying Duroc pigs, it is important to focus not only on their external characteristics, but also on the quality characteristics that the relevant documents must confirm. In addition, breeders in normal nurseries give specific recommendations on the feeding and maintenance of animals of this breed. The exact following of such instructions will facilitate the cultivation of pigs.
In any case, it should be borne in mind that healthy Duroc piglets have a good appetite, activity, well-being, good response to external stimuli. A two-month-old pig baby should be vaccinated with appropriate vaccines. By this time his body should be enriched with iron and vitamins.
Principles for keeping pigs
American pig does not require any special conditions for the content. On the other hand, constant humidity and cold are most likely to provoke a runny nose, often turning into atrophic rhinitis.
For these reasons, it is necessary to properly equip the premises for the maintenance of representatives of this pig breed. Inside should be dry and warm. To do this, it is better to pour concrete floors with drains and a warmed foam layer from the very beginning. On top of this base it is recommended to install wooden platforms, which should always be covered with sawdust, straw or hay. The walls of the shed should also be insulated, preventing the occurrence of drafts.
The important point of the Durok content is to ensure their mobility, that is, the creation of conditions for an active lifestyle. This will favorably affect pork health, well-being and the quality of meat products in the future. In the open air, pigs gain weight very well, they find nutrients that are important for the body. In addition, the movement improves the quality and speed of absorption of feed by the body of animals.
For these reasons, it is recommended to protect the area of walking of pigs and ensure their free passage from the street inside the premises of maintenance. In this case, it is not necessary to equip the sheds. You can start walking the pigs of this pig breed from early spring and limit it only with the onset of the first frost.
Important rules for feeding
It is recommended to start fattening piglets from the age of two months. The organism of representatives of this breed requires a significant amount of protein components in food.
It is thanks to proteins that the proper development and growth of pigs, the formation of high-quality muscle mass occurs.
Pigs should be fed two or three times a day at regular intervals. At the same time for one adult individual daily rate is about 2.5 buckets of feed mixtures. A distinctive feature of the Duroc breed is the ability of pigs to find the necessary vitamins, proteins, fats, carbohydrates when walking in the environment.
To prevent excessive greasy pork meat should not be abused by the addition of the inside of the feed grain components. It is recommended to use more peas, potatoes, food debris from the kitchen, beets, cake. In addition, fish, meat waste, reverse, dairy products and bone meal improve the general condition of animals, positively affect the quality of meat.
Under normal conditions, piglets of the Duroc breed gain 100 kg of live weight in about 4 months, provided that they have the correct feeding regimen and a balanced full ration. It is advisable to subject the pork feed mixture to a thorough heat treatment.
Duroc pigs reach sexual maturity about eight months after birth. Readiness for fertilization is manifested through reddening of the external genital organs, refusal of food and water, restless behavior. Active hunting of gilts lasts about 48 hours, but the boar is more likely to fertilize the female only on the second day.
Therefore, it is recommended that the first half of the hunting time not bother pigs, and in the remaining period to increase the likelihood of fertilization of the sow twice to carry out the mating with an interval of 12 hours. In industrial environments, two boars are often used for this.
In order to obtain high-quality offspring, it is necessary to ensure the mobility and good nutrition of the pregnant pig. It is recommended to provide her with the opportunity to stay in the open area for a long time. Despite the well-developed maternal instinct in sows of the Duroc breed and the high survival rate of piglets, from the first days of life, the young are introduced to feed. At the same time, iron-containing products, vitamins, and special additives should be added to the feed.
For farrowing you need to create conditions of warmth, dryness and comfort. The temperature inside the pigsty should not fall below 25 degrees Celsius. Walls and floors should be covered with thick dry bedding made from straw or sawdust.
Typical diseases of pork breed Duroc
These pigs are distinguished by good immunity and resistance to most diseases characteristic of representatives of other pig species. Draft, sudden changes in temperature, cold, overheating as a result of exposure to the sun often lead to rhinitis, rhinitis.
In such cases, the eyes and nostrils of animals exudes a viscous liquid, pigs cough, sneeze, sniff hard. Because of the "snot" it becomes difficult for them to breathe, they refuse food, lose weight. Piglet disease is especially difficult to tolerate, so pork young require increased attention.
Infection is transmitted from one individual to another. If pathological manifestations are detected inside the herd, it is required to isolate the diseased mumps. After that, therapeutic measures are taken, which consist in washing the pig nose with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and the internal administration of antibiotics. In this case, drugs must be prescribed by a veterinarian.
In addition, the diet of diseased animals is enriched with essential vitamins, microelements such as zinc and iodine. In general, the creation of favorable conditions for housing, timely vaccination prevent the development of pathologies that are dangerous to the health of these animals.
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