More than a hundred years ago, a large white breed of pigs was bred in England. This happened due to the scrupulous selection work of breeders. Together, they tried to preserve the properties and characteristics of Yorkshire domestic pigs. Since the end of the XIX century, representatives of this breed have spread to different countries of the world. On their basis, new varieties were developed that were more adapted to specific climatic conditions.
Characteristics of large white pig breed fully confirm its name. She gained immense popularity among farmers from different countries. Such pigs have a smooth skin of a light shade and a soft bristle which densely covers all surface of a body.
A pig at the age of 2 months is quite large and weighs about 25 kg, and in six months its weight can increase to 100 kg or more. The weight of adult boars often reaches 400 kg, and females - 250-270 kg. The body length of large white breed animals ranges from 170 to 200 cm.
Appearance of pigs is characterized by correct proportions and harmonious lines. A head with a wide forehead, elastic, forward-directed large ears, deep-set eyes, a straight nose and a small stigma are typical characteristics for this breed of pigs.
Their thick, oblong body with a deep chest has a smooth back, which smoothly passes into the back pelvic part. The body of the pigs rests on even strong legs with regular shaped hooves.
Such a build pig is ideal for building meat and fat.
Advantages and disadvantages of this pork species
The large white pig is characterized by high fertility: it brings 10-12 piglets at the same time. A sow can feed all the babies at the same time, due to the length of her body and high milkiness.
In addition, the pigs of this breed grow rapidly, gaining high quality weight. But, like every living creature, the white large pig has its advantages and disadvantages. It features the following features:
- calm friendly character, affection for people;
- early maturity and fertility;
- good appetite, lack of eating habits;
- excellent genetic flexibility, which allows to consolidate and transmit positive properties from generation to generation;
- high meat productivity, which reaches 82% of live weight of pigs.
Among the disadvantages of the rock, first of all, one can note the poor tolerance of low temperatures, drafts and direct exposure to sunlight.
Choosing piglets right
Buying pigs of large white breed requires a deliberate weighted approach. Strong, healthy young animals are the basis of successful pig breeding, so when choosing, you need to clearly understand which animals to prefer.
Too calm behavior, apathy, weak reaction to external stimuli, reduced activity of the baby are undesirable signs that, first of all, should alert the buyer. A healthy pig of a large white breed is afraid of strangers, and when you try to stroke it, it squeals and runs away. If a baby of a pig at the age of 2 months weighs less than 20 kg, then this often indicates violations of its development.
Exterior pigs should also be given maximum attention. Hanging ears, weak short legs, tearing eyes, spots on the skin are undesirable signs of the breed.
Thus, healthy piglets are characterized by activity, good appetite, and external signs normal for the breed. When purchasing them, you need to find out from the seller the diet and composition of the feed in order to make a smooth transition to a new content and to prevent digestive upset.
In addition, information about vaccination of young animals is important.
Principles of creating the most favorable conditions for the content
The big white pig is the most common breed in Europe.
However, small piglets, adult pigs and wild boars of large white breed are very sensitive to low temperatures. Animals do not tolerate drafts, cold, and this should be considered from the very beginning of the arrangement of the pigsty.
First and foremost, it is important to focus on the arrangement of the warm floor and walls. The ideal option for the base of the pen for pigs will be a concrete screed, which is insulated from the bottom with foam, and from above a wooden platform. It is important to provide drain grooves for the removal of pork excreta. It is recommended to use sawdust, straw or hay as a litter.
If there is an attic in the building, then it is better to cover the floor with expanded clay, since when covering it with grass, rodents can get there. Pigs should be provided with good ventilation and lighting.
The best pigsty provide a place for walking and bathing pigs. It is desirable to keep small pigs separately in a pen with an area of at least 3 square meters. m. It is important to provide protection against the penetration of rats into this space.
To prevent various swine diseases, you should clean the pens daily, change litter, drinking water, which should not be warmer than 20 degrees Celsius.
Thus, to ensure the comfortable maintenance of large white pigs, you need to equip a warm pigsty without drafts with strong walls and structures. Open pens should be equipped with a canopy to protect from direct sunlight.
To meat was high quality
To obtain high-quality meat products after fattening, a large white pig is required to regularly feed, which include many proteins and vitamin supplements. The fact is that the grain ration contributes to the rapid weight gain of a pig, but the quality of pork carcass after slaughter is not very good, because it contains a large amount of fat.
Despite the omnivorous nature of large white pigs, the optimal diet for them should include a variety of foods. In addition, it is important to give animals at least 10 liters of water daily. You should always salt the feed mixture, using a minimum of 10 g of salt.
Seasonal addition to grain-based potatoes, corn, beets, apples, pears, zucchini, pumpkins, cabbage, radish, legumes will enrich the diet of pigs. It is better to cook porridge and give them to animals after complete cooling. It is possible to give garden crops to piglets raw, but before that it is desirable to scald them with boiling water.
It is recommended to enrich the diet of pigs with green plants, bone meal from fish, vitamin supplements, chalk. Boars, pigs and small piglets of this breed are fed according to different schemes. The common thing is that pork food must be constantly fresh. Its residues should be removed and the animal feeder should be thoroughly washed away from food debris.
Pigs of a white large breed reach sexual maturity after six months of life, but the opportunity to safely bear the offspring appears when the female gains at least 120 kg. Breeders most often begin to happen animals when they turn one year old.
It is important to choose the most suitable moment for this, which can be determined by such signs as loss of appetite, swelling and redness of the external genital organs of the pig, the appearance of discharge from them. In addition, increased activity and anxiety appears in the female of this breed. Such a description indicates readiness for reproduction.
Like others, the pregnancy of large white sows lasts about 4 months. Before childbirth, there is an increase in the mammary glands, swelling of the genitals, lowering of the abdomen. The female shows a certain anxiety against the background of a decrease in overall activity. She can move the straw, preparing a place for childbirth.
It is not recommended to leave a sow of this breed during childbirth, as she needs help. Born piglets of a large white pig should be cleaned of mucus, focusing maximum effort on the ears, eyes, piglet.
It is necessary to cut the umbilical cord, lubricate the navel of the pig with iodine. Within 45 minutes you need to attach the baby pigs to the mammary glands of the mother. Sucking piglets colostrum forms their own immunity.
You can start feeding newborn piglets with solid food from the third day of their life. The main thing is to do it gently, slowly, focusing on the state of health of the animals.
Rules for the care and maintenance of suckling piglets
Despite the fact that babies of white pig breed develop and grow very quickly, immediately after birth, they require warmth and comfort. To create optimal conditions for their maintenance, it is important to adhere to the following plan.
Particular attention should be paid to wooden floor heating, which should be covered with a thick bed of sawdust or straw. Indoors, where pigs are kept, it is necessary to maintain the temperature from 15 to 27 degrees until the pigs are two months old. In this case, the body of newborn piglets requires an ambient temperature of 28 to 30 degrees.
It is recommended to thoroughly clean the pig pen each week and disinfect it with a 2% chlorine solution. In the warm season, it is very useful to give the young of a large white breed of pigs the opportunity to be in the fresh air. At the same time, the time of their stay outside the premises should be gradually increased.
Up to two months of age, piglets need to be bathed once a week, using warm water for this. It is important to inspect the youngsters regularly and immediately seek veterinary care at the first pathological manifestations.
External manifestations of animal disease
The main symptom of the diseases of most terrestrial mammals is an increase in body temperature. Fever accompanies inflammation within the pig body. This may indicate infectious, viral diseases, confirm the development of helminth infections.
The depressed state of the animals, lack of appetite, weakness are obvious signs of the disease of the pig. Despite strong immunity, large white pigs often suffer from pneumonia. At the same time, piglets and adult individuals of large white pigs develop cough, rapid breathing, and fever. Tearing eyes is noted, a large amount of saliva is produced. Pneumonia is especially dangerous for young stock of this breed.
For pathological manifestations should immediately call the veterinarian, and before his arrival to bring down the temperature in animals. For this, paracetamol is used. The maximum dose can be 1 g. You need to grind a tablet and dissolve it in drinking water. A veterinarian prescribes antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of large white pigs. Read more in the article "Why do piglets cough."
In addition to pneumonia, representatives of the breed of white pigs are prone to overheating and heat stroke. At the same time, weakness, change in gait, and rapid breathing are noted.
In such cases, it is required to ventilate the room, cool the animal with cool water, provide him with plenty of drink. In case of complications, it is recommended to inject hypertonic solution of glucose with caffeine. Dosages will be calculated by the doctor.
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