Among elite breeds that produce high-quality lean meat, landrace pigs occupy a special place. They are distinguished by high productivity and quality of meat products. And they received them as a result of selection work more than a hundred years ago, crossing a Danish pig and a large white from England. Since that time, they have gained great popularity due to the rapid growth of a pig, a large yield of excellent soft meat without fat and streaks that are easily absorbed by the human body.
Improving the quality and characteristics of pig breed
These animals are sensitive to housing conditions and feed composition. Purebred landrace breeds have serious flaws, which are caused by weakness of the joints of the hind legs.
Crossing with local varieties of pigs helps to get rid of such key flaws in individuals. Then the high productivity and excellent qualities of the pig exterior are complemented by resistance to stress, adverse environmental conditions, strength and endurance. Useful qualities, fixed and transmitted from generation to generation, improve the breed.
Her improvement continues constantly. Landrace is a breed of pigs that, when released into different countries, changes in accordance with local characteristics. For example, hybrids obtained from crossing with a motley Mirgorod or white large pig, differ not only in high quality meat products, but also in good fattening characteristics, a strong nervous system.
Distinctive features of landrace pigs
Adult representatives of this pig breed have large sizes. The length of their body reaches 2 m, and the girth of the chest is up to one and a half. A distinctive feature of landrace pigs are long ears, which partially hang over the eyes.
The external description of the breed has the following characteristics:
- massive oblong body with a straight back and a relatively small head;
- long fleshy neck and rather narrow chest;
- strong short legs;
- rare soft bristles and light thin skin vulnerable to extreme environmental influences.
The exterior of pigs is characterized by the correct proportions. Even large adults lack a hanging belly.
At the age of two months, the piglets of the Landrace breed weigh about 20 kg, and after six months their weight reaches 100 kg. Normal feeding brings about 700 g of weight per day, so growing these animals is quite profitable. The mass of an adult thoroughbred boar can reach up to 300 kg, and pigs - 230 kg. Healthy individuals are active and have a high level of mobility.
Advantages and disadvantages
Among the most important advantages of the landas pig breed is such a characteristic as productivity and fecundity. A sow at one farrow results in 10–12 piglets, which adapt well to the environment and survive. In this case, the females of these animals are distinguished by an increased maternal instinct.
By the ratio of high-quality meat and fat, these pigs are 2-5% ahead of other pig species. On the other hand, for the rapid growth and development of landrace piglets, it is necessary to provide them with comfortable conditions, to form the right balanced diet.
The output of pure lean meat is at least 70% of the pork carcass after slaughter.
The advantages of the breed can be safely attributed calm calm nature of the pigs, their mobility and good appetite.
Among the important shortcomings of the Landraces, there is a strong susceptibility to climate change and low resistance to stress. Humidity, drafts, low temperatures often lead to colds and pneumonia. Changes in housing conditions often provoke loss of weight, fertility of animals. In addition, these pigs are particularly demanding on food. Any violations of the feeding regime directly affect the productivity of the breed.
Main aspects of keeping landrace pigs
In the pig industry it is important to follow certain rules. From the outset, you need to take care of high-quality vaccination of young. On the third day after the birth of a piglet, it is recommended to be vaccinated against bacteriosis, salmonellosis, and also to introduce iron preparations and vitamins. After a month and a half, you should be vaccinated against leptospirosis, after two months you should be vaccinated for erysipelas, and after three months - for the classical variety of plague.
In the article "Vaccinations of pigs from birth," you will find all the details about vaccination.
Creating a favorable microclimate for pigs Landrace is the most important farming task, because the health of pigs directly depends on it. The temperature inside the pen should be maintained not lower than 20 degrees Celsius. We need to take care of the absence of drafts, dampness. In part, this will help to make a quality litter of sawdust or straw.
Depending on the size and age of the animals, they need a certain living space. For an adult Landrace boar breed, approximately 6 square meters are required. m, and for a small pig - 0.3 square meters. m. The most optimal is the combined lighting, which combines natural and artificial light.
It is important to carry out proper sanitary care on an ongoing basis, regularly change litter, clean the pen, and bathe the piglets in warm water. In the warm season, animals are recommended to walk in open pens with awnings to protect from direct sunlight. For the Landrace breed, being outdoors is very helpful.
How to choose the young
When choosing piglets, the main attention should be focused on the overall activity of the babies, their constitution. The young pigs of the Landrace breed are distinguished by a rather good fatness. On the other hand, if a piglet is too fat, then this is an undesirable sign.
A straight or slightly curved nose line, an even slightly arched back, and a deep broad chest indicate a well-developed pig skeleton. Strong legs with brilliant clean hooves, widely and confidently standing on the ground, complement the image of the landas piglet with a strong body constitution. Deviation from such parameters is a rather bad phenomenon. Of the important features of a healthy animal, you can select a smooth elastic skin, silky bristles, clean tail.
Breath of a healthy pig Landrace is characterized by measured, clean and deep. If animals breathe heavily, wheeze, cough, this often indicates pathological changes in the upper airways or in the lungs.
An important parameter when choosing a landrace pig is its weight. At the age of one month it should be 5-7 kg, and in the two-month period - about 20 kg. In addition, the distinctive feature of a pedigree healthy animal is an elongated body shape.
Features of the diet and high-quality feeding
Proper diet and a balanced diet is crucial for the growth and development of young animals, obtaining high-quality meat products after slaughter. It is recommended to feed the animals twice a day, and in the winter - three times at regular intervals. The daily rate per adult pig is approximately two buckets of feed mixtures.
Landraces are quite picky about food, so their feed must be balanced, complete, including the necessary proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals. A good base for feeding them are cereal mixtures, greens, silage, fish and bone meal. An excellent addition would be dairy products in the form of whey, nonfat milk. Very useful and necessary for this breed vegetables in all possible diversity - nettle, clover, shchiritsa, alfalfa, dill, parsley.
The diet of pigs must necessarily contain animal proteins. In addition, legumes will be helpful. Excess fishmeal within the feed directly affects the quality of bacon, so this ingredient should be excluded from the pork ration three months before slaughter.
Landrace pigs are often raised free-range, providing them access to fresh grass. But the feeding of these animals porridge is of great importance. It is better to cook them using cereals, vegetables, kitchen waste. The main thing is a good heat treatment of all products. Even fresh greens are best scalded with boiling water. Such mixtures should be given only after cooling.
In order to get good offspring of the Landrace breed in a small household, you need to find a good boar. Considering the fact that the sexual hunt of females lasts about two days, it should be covered with a boar twice with an interval of 12 hours. The sow ready for mating stands calmly and motionless throughout this process. It is not recommended to leave females and males for a long time inside one pen, as this may adversely affect future piglets. In addition, during this period there is an increase in the aggressiveness of animals.
Landraces are often crossed with pork meat breed Duroc. At the same time it turns out quite strong hardy offspring, which retains the best qualities of parents.
Pregnancy of pigs lasts about four months. During this period, animals need special care. To feed them you need to feed the highest quality, avoiding in any case rot and mold inside the food.
The presence of people is desirable during farrowing, since each newborn landras calf weighs approximately 1.5 kg, and the sow usually results in 10–12 piglets. During childbirth, you need to cut the umbilical cord of a baby, cauterize the wound with iodine and wipe the piglet dry with a soft, clean cloth.
Within 45 minutes it is important to bring the newborn to the nipples of the mother. It favorably affects his immunity, and also facilitates the birth pains of a pig. Since landrace prefer heat, piglets after birth should be placed under the lamp for heating.
Rules for the care of born young
It is important to regularly put babies on the mother’s nipples at intervals of two hours. Weak pork individuals that do not gain weight well need special attention. They should be placed under the mother’s front nipples, which are characterized by a higher milk yield. In addition, it is required to carry out their feeding in manual mode. Along with the dairy diet, in the diet of such pigs in a few days you need to gradually introduce wheat, barley, legumes.
Although the landrace sow takes care of its offspring and has always enough milk, it is extremely undesirable to keep the young in the same pen with the mother. Because of its large weight, an adult animal can accidentally injure or strangle babies.
In addition, a stressed pig may even eat its offspring. It is recommended to release dairy piglets for feeding every 2-3 hours after the sow is already in the supine position.
Pigs usually feed their young for 28 days. During this time, it is important that Landrace pigs switch to normal food. Ensuring full proper feeding contributes to good health, rapid growth and development of pork young.
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