About cysticercosis of pigs


The larval form of an armed chain that develops in the body of an intermediate host causes a dangerous disease called finnoz or cysticercosis of pigs. This disease is asymptomatic, but cysticerci or Finns accumulate in the muscle tissues of the animal, which can give rise to the development of an adult ribbon parasite. The final host of biohelminth is a person who, together with fecal masses, spreads harmful eggs.

About the parasite causing the disease

Pork tapeworm, which is the cause of cysticercosis, has a complex development cycle associated with the mandatory change of owners. The adult form of a tapeworm lives in the small intestine of a person, absorbing nutrients from it. The parasite is capable of reaching 8 m, although its average size rarely exceeds 2-3 m.

The body of the biohelminth consists of a miniature (1-3 mm) head (scolex), on which there are four suckers and up to 32 hooks. With the help of these devices, the parasite is tightly attached to the walls of the small intestine of its host, absorbing nutrients from it.

Behind the scolex there is a cervix and about 1 thousand segments, each of which, as it grows, forms a hermaphroditic reproductive system and is capable of reproduction. Closer to the end part of the worm, the segments, called the strobila, are almost completely stuffed with parasite eggs, the number of which is able to reach 50 thousand.

Every day, 5-6 strobiles off the tapeworm.

The segments filled with eggs do not have independent organs of movement and are carried outside the host organism together with the fecal masses. They can maintain their vitality for several months.

Once in the soil, parasite eggs retain their vitality for a long time and are spread by insects, small rodents and birds. Read more in the article "The life cycle of the development of pork chain".

Enters the body with food

Pigs are infected with cysticercosis, eating human waste or infected with worm eggs, food. In the acidic environment of the stomach, the shell of the egg is destroyed, releasing the larva armed with sharp hooks. With the help of this device, the parasite gnaws through the walls of the small intestine, penetrating into the lymphatic fluid or the blood of the victim.

Together with the current of the liquid, the tapeworm larvae spread through the body of adult pigs, boars and piglets. Most often they are localized in skeletal muscle, as well as the heart, tongue and brain of an infected animal. They grow and develop within 2-4 months, turning into a cysticercus - a dense capsule, inside of which is a fully formed head of an adult worm with four miniature suckers and two rows of sharp hooks.

Cysticercus has the appearance of a translucent ellipse and may have a different size. Most often it is the size of millet grain, but some capsules reach 20 mm in length and 10 mm in width. It retains its viability in the muscle tissues of the wearer for 2-3 years, after which it dies and collapses. Read more in the article "On the structure of the pork tapeworm".

Finnozy or cysticercosis are asymptomatic without causing pain to the victim, therefore regular prophylaxis of domestic pigs is required.

Human infection occurs by eating infected meat from pigs and other animals, in which there are cysticercus or Finns of the parasite.

The source of infection is man

The source of infection of domestic pigs with cysticercosis is a person suffering from teniasis. For a long time (up to 20 years), he is able to release hundreds of billions of pork tape eggs to the external environment.

If the parasite's carrier sends natural needs to specially equipped latrines in which sanitary and hygienic cleaning and disinfection are carried out regularly, then the risk of spreading the disease is significantly reduced.

When using public toilets, which are accessible to domestic animals, especially pigs, who love to rummage through the soil in search of food, the risk of infection with cysticercosis increases.

Often the carriers of parasite eggs are insects, small rodents and birds. delivering the pathogen pork chain to the sources of water and food. Therefore, when breeding pigs, it is necessary to maintain cleanliness in the premises and to limit the access of other living creatures to feeding places for animals.

No visible symptoms of the disease

Cysticercosis in the body of a domestic pig is often asymptomatic, although with careful observation of the animals, attention can be paid to some changes in behavior.

The animal may feel some pain when it is drilled by the larvae of the walls of the small intestine. The animal may become irritable and agitated.

In cysticercosis, complicated by the development of pork tapeworm larvae, some carriers of the parasite may experience allergic reactions associated with the release of toxic wastes of their own vital activity by the helminth. Although such cases are extremely rare.

If a large number of larvae develop in the body at the same time, which absorb the host nutrients and poison it, then a pig may become lethargic. With the defeat of the heart muscle anemia occurs and the weakness of the animal manifests itself.

Development finn can lead to death

If a large number of parasite eggs that have spread throughout the body simultaneously appeared in the body of a domestic pig, then external signs of cysticercosis of pigs may appear. Such animals develop shallow breathing and swelling of various parts of the body, periodic cramps occur, and muscular dystrophy is possible.

In the case of the simultaneous development of a large number of cysticerci in the tissues of the pig's heart, the animal may die.

When an individual lives, it is almost impossible to detect the presence of the parasite in its muscle tissues, which is why a mandatory sanitary assessment of a slaughtered pig carcass is required.

Eating meat infected with cysticercosis pigs is not prohibited, but requires careful heat treatment, destroying the causative agent of tapeworm. Quite often, such meat is used for the production of finished products, but its use requires the utmost care.

Veterinary inspection of animals is required.

After the slaughter of a pig, its carcass must undergo a thorough veterinary examination. Under laboratory conditions, specialists dissect muscle tissue and inspect the pulp. Obligatory cuts are made on the heart and muscles of the head.

If 40 square meters. see the muscle incision found more than three living or dead cysticerci, then the carcass of the slaughtered animal is subject to mandatory technical disposal.

Internal and external fat can be used as food, but it must be reheated, frozen, or carefully salted. It is allowed to use for cooking sausages intestines in which cysticercus do not live. Quite often, they are localized only in the muscles of the head and heart. In such cases, only they are recycled, as well as other internal organs.

Muscle fibers after carrying out careful heat treatment can be eaten. Deep freezing of the carcass and its storage in a concentrated salt solution is allowed.

In all cases, frozen or thoroughly salted carcasses of slaughtered pigs are sent for the manufacture of sausages or minced meat, and before serving are processed with high temperature.

Preventive activities in pig farms

Due to the fact that it is impossible to completely prevent the eggs of the pork tape in the body of animals (it is believed that up to 30% of domestic pigs are infected with cysticercosis), certain measures are required. It:

  • mandatory sanitary assessment and examination of animal carcasses of slaughtered animals at slaughter houses and meat processing plants;
  • categorical prohibition of household slaughter of pigs and the sale of meat without examination by a veterinarian;
  • when more than three cysticerci are detected in the muscle fibers, pork is to be recycled and processed for pet food;
  • obligatory veterinary control over the sanitary condition of farms;
  • systematic screening for teniasis of people who are constantly in contact with pigs or working on pig farms;
  • disinfection of equipment on farms and private farms;
  • regular cleaning and disinfection of public restrooms;
  • a categorical ban on the use of raw pork or uncooked minced meat.

Modern pig farms are maximally protected from the penetration of pork tape eggs into them. Infection of animals with cysticercosis is extremely rare.

Sanitation and hygiene will protect against infection

It should be borne in mind that teniasis and cysticercosis are dangerous diseases that can seriously harm the health of people and animals infected by them. If sanitary and hygienic standards are observed, the risk of infection with the pig chain is minimized, but a person infected with an adult form of tapeworm can be the source of a dangerous epidemic.

Therefore, all employees of pig farms should regularly undergo laboratory tests, in a timely manner identifying the causative agent of dangerous biohelminthoses in their own bodies.

Regular cleaning of the feeders and timely removal of manure reduce the risk of introduction of pork tape eggs to small rodents, birds and insects. And the treatment of enclosures with disinfectants and careful veterinary control will keep the livestock healthy, bringing a high income to the farmer.

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