The American painthorse breed is known worldwide for its special qualities and calm character. A unique variety of colors, graceful rush and incredible endurance allowed these horses to take one of the leading places among purebred species. They participate in competitions, are shot in films, are used in horse riding lessons and require special care.
The American painthorse was bred more than 300 years ago by crossing the oldest American breeds: cowboy quarterhorses and thoroughbred riding horses. The predecessors of the paintwork were brought to the Americas by the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes in 1493.
Due to the endurance of the horse used by local Indians and cowboys in agricultural work or as fast horses.
According to the beliefs of the Indians, these horses are endowed with magical powers that can protect the rider in battle. Their camouflage qualities were especially valued: white suits did not differ on a white snowy background; in summer, the colorful pattern on the body allowed the paint to merge with the surrounding landscape.
Officially, in 1962, fans of spotted representatives of paint horses united in the American Painthorse Association to preserve the species.
Requirements, description of the type and character
The main requirements for the American paint - pedigree, body type and matching the color characteristics of the species.
Individuals bred only from parents of quarterhorses, thoroughbreds, or paints registered with the APHA (American Horse Association) or Jockey Club are subject to registration.
The characteristics of the physique of the American painthorse are the well developed musculature of the horse’s croup with a low center of gravity.
The painthorse has a proportional head with blue eyes and a broad forehead, a slightly distinguishable withers, two-colored tail. Thanks to strong hind legs and strong hoofs, it is rapidly developing at a speed of up to 70 km per hour.
Horse height in withers 145-170 cm. Weight up to 500 kg. Life expectancy up to 31 years.
Very friendly and intelligent horses with a calm character. They are easy to train, perfectly understand and execute commands. Particularly patient when dealing with children.
The peculiarity of the American painthorse - an unusual color. Basic coloring: black, bay, karak and red. Less common: nightingale, buckthorn, gray, savrasaya, kauraya and mousy. Very rare: silver and champagne.
Suits of the form:
- tobiano - white legs, marks of the correct form on the neck and chest area of the horse, in the frontal part of the star or protochina;
- frame (over) - dark legs, dark or light color prevails, irregular spots on the abdomen or head, less often on the back;
- Sabino - gray and 1-2 ordish eyes;
- Tovaro - a combination of the colors overa and tobiano.
The color pattern should be determined by white large spots on the dark tones of the horse's body. There are options for dark marks on a white background. Sizes of spots not less than 2 inches (1 inch = 2.54 centimeters).
State of the art
In America, painthorse is recognized as the second most popular among purebred breeds. Massively bred herds in Texas and in the southwest United States.
Often American painthorse used in the farm. Horses are especially popular in sports, exhibitions and in cowboy movies. Often used for horse riding lessons or horseback riding.
It should be noted the participation of paints in hippotherapy - horse riding treatment and communication with horses. Studies show that such therapy can improve the condition of patients with autism, cerebral palsy, and diseases of the nervous system and the brain.
Genetic problems in breeding horses
The main difficulty in breeding Amerkan painthorse is the high mortality rate among young whites Overo or Tovero. One of the difficulties often was the inability to determine the suit frame-over in parental pairs. At present, this problem has been solved by analyzing the Frame gene.
At the genetic level, American painthorse has diseases inherited from Quarterhorse: periodic paralysis (associated with excess potassium in the blood) and imperfect epitheliogenesis (ulceration and erosion on the distal limbs, head and tongue, which can lead to the death of young).
Due to the family relationship with purebred horses, the painthorse were at risk of developing Wobbler syndrome (a disease of the spinal cord in young horses).
American painthorse is prone to diseases of the cardiovascular system, invasive (case) diseases, podermatitis, morbillivirus infection. Increased physical activity can adversely affect the condition of the horse.
In order to avoid paint problems, it is recommended that detailed veterinary examination of horses be carried out annually.
Features care and nutrition of horses
Particular attention is paid to the diet of American painthorse:
- It is recommended to use meadow or steppe hay, grass-legume mixtures, straw of oats, millet and barley.
- The diet also includes high-quality concentrated feed (rye, millet, oats, barley), moist wheat bran.
- Mandatory root crops of 12-13 kg per day (carrots, potatoes, beets, rutabaga).
- Mixed feed is recommended, sometimes wet.
- If the content in the menu of combined solid feeds is less than 30% or the pasture contains few nutrients, it is recommended to add vitamin and mineral supplements.
- It is forbidden to give horses, especially to colts, silage with high acidity.
It is necessary to feed the horses in small portions (1.5-2 kg per 100 kg of weight), but often - 3-5 times a day. The best option would be constant access to the feed.
The stable should be spacious, without drafts, with a good roof and walls.
A separate stall is recommended for each horse, provided with clean bedding and fresh, clean water.
Improper sanitization of the hooves and skin of American painthorse can lead to inflammation, and subsequently to the appearance of eczema on the affected area.
Insufficient control over the correct development of the skeleton and muscles can lead to complications in the joints.
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