The Vietnamese pig breed that has long ceased to be considered in our country is becoming more and more popular with domestic livestock breeders. These piglets have a friendly disposition, unpretentious care and extremely clean. But their main advantage is high fecundity, the ability to quickly gain slaughter weight when eating herbs with minimal addition of cereal feeds, as well as dietary meat with low cholesterol content.
High producing pigs from Asia
This breed received wide distribution in the late 80s of the last century, when piglets of unusual breed from Southeast Asia were brought to Canada and Western Europe. Sows showed extremely high fecundity, reaching reproductive age by 4 months, producing up to 24 pigs per year, with an average single offspring of 8-12 individuals. In the description of the breed indicates that pigs are herbivores, grow quickly and give excellent bacon.
Due to the fact that the first years of the piglets were imported exclusively from Vietnam, the breed was named the Vietnamese low-swine pigs. By crossing several even more productive lines were bred. The hybrid was resistant to life in more severe conditions.
The high meat productivity of Vietnamese baby-pigs made their breeding extremely profitable, and many Western farmers began to systematically switch to breeding pigs of this particular breed.
Already by the 2000s, Vietnamese pigs entered the Russian market, where they were appreciated by breeders and lovers of tasty dietary meat. Domestic pig breeding instantly responded to this, giving rise to a whole breeding direction for piglets of Asian origin.
In recent years, the breeding of animals of this breed has become extremely popular, because unpretentiousness in food and small size make it possible to keep several pigs even in a small room without problems.
Because of hanging ears, some ordinary people mistakenly name the breed Vietnamese lop-eared pigs. But this is wrong, although it does not play a special role for getting juicy dietary meat.
Great bacon owners
The Vietnamese Breeding pig breed has characteristics that do not allow it to be confused with other members of this group of animals.
Vietnamese pigs are herbivores and are bred solely for meat. This is the reason for the peculiarities of their structure, which consists in:
- squat body constitution with short legs, strong hips and sternum;
- a short thick body with a curved back;
- a large sagging belly that many individuals can reach to the ground;
- a short muzzle with an accordion-snout;
- usually short ears, but often lop-eared piglets;
- most common are black pigs with white spots on the head;
- hybrids may include pure black, red or white pigs;
- at birth, the pigs have a weight of about 500-600 g, but for every day that they live they gain another 350-500 g of live weight;
- an adult pig reaches a weight of 100-120 kg, a boar can weigh up to 140 kg;
- there are known cases when a boar has reached a weight of 200 kg;
- females are capable of breeding by the end of 4 months of life;
- pregnancy lasts for 115-120 days, and up to 18 pigs can be born at a time
Despite the fact that the "Vietnamese" do not like to dig the earth, but prefer to eat grass and shoots of bushes, boars are armed with tusks capable of reaching a length of 15 cm.
Piglets bred for meat are slaughtered at 7-8 months of life when they reach a weight of 70-80 kg, and at the exit, up to 70-75% of delicious pork is obtained.
Features of the content "Vietnamese"
Vietnamese pigs have received particular popularity among breeders for their cleanliness and unpretentious content. Even a young pig will not tear the earthen floor in the pigsty and defecate in the place of its rest, and in the presence of a mini-reservoir will always bathe.
Most often small breeding houses are made of bricks or wood for breeding the breed of Vietnamese visrubury pigs. It should have a good ventilation system, because the pigs feel bad in conditions of high humidity. It is necessary to exclude the presence of drafts. To preserve the health of the offspring with the onset of cold weather, the pigsty is recommended to be heated.
Due to the fact that Vietnamese piglets do not like to rummage in the ground, we can restrict ourselves to a simple tamping of the clay floor, but it is better to concreting it for easy cleaning. Part of the pigsty is covered with boardwalk. In cold weather, pigs like to spend more time on the boardwalk, and in the summer heat they cool on concrete.
It is recommended to highlight the sleeping area on the flooring, putting low partitions. The dimensions of the sleep compartments should be 4.5 plus or minus 1 square meter. m. It is believed that this is the optimal size of the pens, in which several extremely congregational pigs will simultaneously relax. The boar, boar, and sow with piglets should have separate resting areas.
In the summer, Vietnamese piglets should definitely walk on the street. Otherwise, they lose their appetite, and reduce the increase in muscle mass. Read more in the article "Vietnamese visrubry pigs: maintenance and care."
Breeding pigs of this breed for meat requires mandatory castration in males. It is produced at the age of about one and a half months, long before the boar begins to form into an adult.
Such a procedure is extremely important, since non-neutered wild boar has a specific smell of meat, which may even be unfit for human consumption. Such animals are very aggressive, especially in the hunting period, which comes once a month after they reach the age of 4 months.
Mature boar turns into a wild beast. He can cover the female, not ready for fertilization, and also fight with other animals, causing them serious injuries, and even death.
The boar, on the contrary, is distinguished by a meek temper and is perfectly adapted to life in the swine community. He has an excellent appetite, quickly gaining weight and brings a high income to the farmer. There are cases when slaughter individuals reached a weight of 200 kg, which is generally uncharacteristic for pigs of this breed. You can read more about this in the article "On the Castration of Vietnamese Piglets".
Love to walk and eat
Vietnamese pigs are herbivores and feel great on the range, where they get enough greens and shoots of shrubs. The unique characteristic of pigs of this breed is that they distinguish poisonous plants at the level of genetic memory and never eat them.
However, this is not enough for a rapid increase in muscle mass, so it is imperative that other feeds be added to their diet.
It is believed that the most optimal is to add to food up to 20% of cereals, root crops, other vegetables and fruits.
Due to the intestinal features of the intestine, the Vietnamese pig eats little by little, but often, and a high metabolism allows the body to absorb the maximum amount of nutrients.
How to choose the right pig
Domestic farmers have the opportunity to choose whether to breed pigs of this breed on their own, or to purchase already grown pigs for fattening.
In the first case, you need to know some features of these pigs. Unlike their fellows, closely related crossbreeding leads to a degeneration of the offspring, which can have a number of deformities and be unable to gain lethal weight. Therefore, hog and sow need to be purchased from different manufacturers. It is desirable, generally from different regions.
If there are no complaints to the sow, it can be fattened to the reproductive age, and then allowed to mating. Usually mature boar runs for a day to her in the aviary. No additional procedures are required.
About a month before giving birth, the black pig will begin to clean out its cage, creating optimal conditions for farrowing.
The reproduction of the offspring lasts 115-120 days, after which the sow gives birth without assistance and takes care of the pups on its own. Pigs have strong immunity. In most cases, breeders allow females to independently nurse them, providing the latter with a sufficient amount of food and water. The article "On the breeding of Vietnamese pigs at home for a beginner" will complement the information obtained here in full.
Care for newborn babies
Despite the fact that Vietnamese sows are closely watching their offspring, due to the large number of piglets, some of them do not receive proper care. On the first day, the farmer is advised to carefully monitor that each baby has access to the mother's nipple and feeds on the colostrum that it produces.
With a shortage of milk in babies, anemia can develop, threatening to deteriorate health and death. Therefore, on the 3rd and 10th day, the piglets should be stabbed with ferroselenit or Urosoferran-100 iron-containing preparations. This procedure is not mandatory, but allows you to maintain immunity at a higher level.
The pig should feed the offspring with milk for a month, but after 10 days the piglet is added to the food with impurities of water, charcoal, clay and chalk, which strengthen its skeletal system.
After 20 days, special granulated feeds for piglets are introduced into the diet, as well as cereals, rich in vitamins of various groups. The article "On feeding Vietnamese piglets at home" will acquaint you with all the intricacies of the process.
The stated age must match the physiological
When purchasing piglets for growing meat, special attention should be paid to their age and timely mating of males, since boars are much more preferable for these purposes. Description of animals, given by the seller, must fully comply with the physiological features.
Given that the daily increase in live weight ranges from 350 to 500 g, be sure to compare how the age declared by the seller corresponds to real. Pay attention to the sow, which, before the piglets reach the age of 1 month, should have saggy and clearly visible milk lobes.
If they are absent, and a pig weighs about 3.5 kg, then this is the first sign of the sale of a sick baby.
It should be borne in mind that the acquisition of a diseased piglet can cause infection on the pig farm and the loss of most of the livestock. Read more in the article "Cultivation of Vietnamese bastard pigs".
High disease resistance
Despite the fact that piglets have innate immunity, diseases of Vietnamese pigs can affect not only a single brood, but also all the livestock of the farm. Symptoms of pathologies in them are no different from the signs of diseases recorded in other breeds.
The most common intestinal diseases associated with the transfer of weaned pigs to new feed. Digestion is quickly restored when the usual “Smekta” or “Biovita” is added to the feed.
Due to the fact that in the summer, pigs spend a lot of time on grazing, the risk of helminthiasis is very high. In piglets can live worms of various species, carried by insects, birds, small rodents and even humans.
For the prevention of helminth infections, it is recommended that piglets be vaccinated once every four months. Albendozol is added to the feed, or Ecomectin is injected under the skin.
Asian pigs are distinguished by a special cleanliness and innate immunity. This reliably protects them from infection with dangerous infections, although without proper care, poor feeding and lack of clean water, and they may develop infectious diseases.
Tasty dietary meat
In addition to the high performance of sows, unpretentious content, resistance to disease and the rapid growth of the Vietnamese pig breed are highly valued for the quality of their meat.
According to experts, such pork contains 7 times less cholesterol and other fatty acids than traditional meat or sebaceous breeds. The thickness of the fat never exceeds 3-3.5 cm, and the bacon has a beautiful appearance with thin layers of fat, and a delicate taste.
The optimal age for slaughter is to reach the pigs 7-8 months. Pigs reach an average weight of 70-80 kg, and their carcass contains up to 65% meat and 25% fat.
Some connoisseurs of bacon are specially added to the diet of special food to increase the amount of fatty tissue, but this is rather the exception to the rule. The main task of the piglets of this breed is to give a person a lot of juicy pork.
The meat has a light pink color and can be easily distinguished from the darker pork of traditional European varieties. When roasting, it gets a light cream color and is great for cooking kebabs and grills, as well as salting, smoking and boiling.
The content of herbivorous pigs is very suitable for small farms and private farmsteads. The guinea pigs, distinguished by their good-tempered and not digging the earth, get along well with people, and their maintenance does not require large premises.
The only prerequisite is regular airing of the pig house in the absence of drafts, heating it in cold weather (piglets can freeze and ache), as well as balancing the food. From this you can read in the article "The maintenance of the Vietnamese pigs at home."
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