Causes and treatment of pig salmonellosis


There is always a risk of infection leading to losses, and salmonellosis in pigs is one of them. Despite the fact that, in general, pig breeding is a profitable type of agriculture, one cannot do without emergency measures in the event of a spread of the disease. After all, farm income depends on the state of animal health. After reading our article, you will learn the basic measures for the prevention of this disease, its symptoms and methods of treatment.

Various sources of infection

Salmonellosis, also called paratyphoid fever, is an infectious disease that affects the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the internal organs of the animal.

First of all, the piglets suffered from this disease, which were taken away from the sow or transferred to feeding with collection milk. The most frequently sick animals from birth to four months of age.

The disease is caused by a variety of bacteria: salmonella choleracius, salmonella enteritis, salmonella typhimurium, or salmonella typhisius.

These bacteria are very viable, they remain on various objects for up to 160 days, in animal excrement - up to 420 days, in water - up to 500 days. Thus, the source of salmonellosis piglets can be anything:

  • sick animals;
  • contaminated milk or other drink;
  • the allocation of sick animals;
  • infected litter;
  • rodents;
  • infected clothing staff.

Salmonella Prevention Conditions

Salmonellosis quickly occurs and develops in unsanitary conditions, with high humidity, temperature violations on the farm, in the absence of ventilation. The quality of nutrition plays an important role in protecting against infection. The use of poor-quality feed and, as a result, avitaminosis in animals facilitates infection of piglets.

Promotes the spread of infection and excessive antibiotic enthusiasm. Bacteria become resistant to them, the medicine loses its effectiveness.
Despite the persistence of infection, there are modern ways to resist it. Salmonella bacteria die 15-30 minutes at a temperature of 70-75 degrees Celsius. There are also effective disinfectants: sodium hydroxide 4%, iodine monochloride 5%, 1% solution of carbolic acid and creolin, bleach, 20% suspension of freshly sour lime.

Compliance with simple rules to maintain the proper level of sanitary status of pigsties will help with the prevention of salmonellosis pigs.

The farmer should ensure that manure is regularly cleaned and decontaminated, and that rodent control is constantly carried out. Quarantine compliance is required for new individuals entering the holding. Sick animals also need to be isolated.

Therefore, it is extremely important to ensure cleanliness on the farm in order to eliminate the possibility of infection.

Immunization vaccine

An important and effective prevention will be a vaccine against salmonellosis. Inoculation do pregnant sows and newborn piglets. For this purpose, mono- or polyvaccines are used, for example, formol-vaccine, a polyvalent vaccine against paratyphoid fever and colibacillosis, a concentrated polyvalent vaccine against paratyphoid fever, pasteurellosis and diplococcal septicemia of piglets.

The vaccine against salmonellosis contributes to the formation of immunity. For the effect to occur, you will have to wait from 10 days to 2 weeks. Animals remain immune from six months to 8 months. In the future, you may need revaccination.

Vaccination regimens depend on various conditions. So, if simple prevention is required, the piglets (20 days old) are vaccinated twice. They are administered the selected drug with an interval of 5-8 days, the dosage is 4-5 ml.

If the farm has a focus of infection and diseased animals, then the actions of the owner should be as follows. All piglets are inspected. Those with established symptoms of salmonellosis are isolated and immediately treated.

Pigs without clinical signs of disease, with a normal temperature, are vaccinated with monovaccine. You can also use formolvaccine. It is administered to the pigs according to the following scheme: the first time - 3 ml, after 5-8 days - 45 ml, and after another 10-20 days - 5 ml.

After a victory over a disease in an economy full disinfection is carried out. Then it takes another month for the farm to be declared safe for salmonellosis.

Acute form leads to death.

Bacteria enter the body of a pig through the stomach and intestinal tract. The incubation, that is, the latent period of salmonellosis in pigs is 1-8 days. There are acute, subacute and chronic forms of the disease.

When salmonellosis passes in acute form, the animal begins to fever, the body temperature rises to 42 degrees.

The behavior of the sick pig changes, it is apathetic, mostly lies, is at rest, refuses to eat, the ears change shade to bluish. After 2-3 days, the animal begins to have diarrhea, while the feces are liquid with mucus and sometimes with blood, has a sharp and unpleasant odor.

The disease lasts 3-7 days, if you do not take measures in time and do not begin treatment, the animal becomes dehydrated and dies. Acute salmonellosis has a high mortality rate. The death of piglets is up to 80% of the number of cases.

In the article "Pig Body Temperature" you will learn about this important parameter in more detail.

Gentle does not mean safe

If there is a subacute form of the disease, then the symptoms are almost the same as in acute. However, the disease proceeds without sharp bursts, more gently. Symptoms that appear, then disappear. Body temperature first rises, then decreases. As a rule, it ranges from 40.3 to 40.8 degrees Celsius. The behavior of piglets becomes wavy. Now they have an excellent appetite and they are mobile, then they are lethargic and refuse to eat.

The subacute form of the disease lasts for about 20 days, if it is not treated, then 40-45% of the animals die, in other cases, salmonellosis becomes chronic.

If the disease becomes chronic, the animals become weak, it is difficult for them to rise, they show a lack of appetite, the temperature periodically rises, diarrhea appears, which can be replaced by constipation. A painful condition may last more than 3 months.

Subacute and chronic salmonellosis, in addition to diarrhea, is accompanied by pneumonia (pneumonia). The animal often breathes, coughs. The disease may be accompanied by complications of the joints. The inflammation begins, they swell, the load on them causes pain, the pig begins to limp. Animals lose weight, the skin becomes gray.

Diagnosis and treatment

Accurate diagnosis of the disease is very important, because treatment tactics depend on it, and the symptoms of salmonellosis are similar to plague, dysentery, viral gastroenteritis.

The diagnosis will require blood tests (bacteriological and serological), feces and tissues from dead animals.

Due to the fact that salmonellosis is a bacterial disease, antibiotics are indispensable. Veterinarians recommend using synthomycin, chloramphenicol, chlortetracycline, terramycin, sulfonamide and nitrofuran preparations for treatment. The dosage depends on the weight of the animal and is selected individually by the veterinarian.

For example, levometsitin has proven itself well. It is prescribed 2 times a day at the rate of 30-40 mg per 1 kg of body weight. Reception of drugs should be continued 4-6 days. When treating with tetracycline, the dosage and regimen are similar.

If we talk about the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, it is often used clamoxyl LA. It is administered to the piglets intramuscularly 1 ml per 10 kg of body weight. A single injection is usually enough, since the therapeutic concentration of the drug in the blood lasts 96 hours.

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