Inflammatory activity in the nasal mucosa, called infectious atrophic rhinitis of pigs, most often is of a chronic form. Complications cause irreversible changes in the nasal conchas, in other words atrophy, as well as the thinning of the bones of the upper jaw. The disease is considered infectious and most often occurs with the active breeding of animals on large farms. We first learned about it in 1829 in Germany.
There are some bacteria - Pasteurella multicida var. suis and Bordotella bronchiseptica var. Suis. It is believed that because of them pigs suffer from atrophic rhinitis. Only these animals are subject to the disease, especially suckling piglets. These bacteria resemble a small stick, which is gram-negative, immobile and does not form a spore. However, this information does not have 100% evidence. Researchers only suggest this option.
Bacteria are quite toxic and can survive frozen for up to 120 days. If they are placed in a normal environment and a positive temperature, then they persist for up to two weeks.
Destroy the stick can exposure to 1% formaldehyde for three hours. Also apply 3% caustic soda and 20% freshly sour lime. Heating to 60 degrees can kill bacteria in 1 hour.
Ways of infection
Piglets become infected from sick adults. In the latter, the course of the disease is often asymptomatic and therefore considered the most dangerous fact. You can become infected by airborne droplets, because atrophic rhinitis is a respiratory problem. Of course, one cannot exclude direct contact and the case when the discharge from the nose of an infected individual fell into the common feeding bowl or drinker. If a pig sneezes and coughs, then it is a high risk of infecting healthy livestock.
In dysfunctional farms, rodents and worms can spread the bacterium and atrophic rhinitis in general. Insects are also carriers of the pathogen, although they and other carriers do not get sick. The infection advances in nests (litters) and machines.
The probability of atrophic rhinitis in piglets per week is 80%. The lower the age of sows, the greater the chance of getting sick in the young, especially if the farrowing was in the winter-spring period.
It is believed that ill with atrophic rhinitis is possible not only from the pathogen, but also from non-compliance with the conditions of pigs. This is a whole complex of factors. The probability of the disease is higher with improper feeding, which lacks protein and vitamins. Also, the presence of calcium and phosphorus in food should be balanced. Increased attention to sows - their walks should be especially valuable, and conditions should be comfortable. But in principle for all pigs it is important to have a warm and dry room.
Symptoms and signs
In pigs, atrophic rhinitis begins with an incubation period that lasts from several days to a month. The disease has a subacute and chronic stage. The following symptoms are observed:
- anxiety, rubbing noses about different things, burrowing in the straw, shaking your head;
- sneezing, snorting;
- serous, and then mucopurulent flow from the nose (runny nose);
- clogging of the lacrimal ducts, because the nasal mucosa swells, resulting in a tearing and darkening of the skin at the corners of the eyes;
- swelling of the lower eyelids;
- blood from the nose (sometimes, due to increased friction on the surface).
All this is observed in the acute form of catarrhal rhinitis. It lasts about 2-3 weeks, after which all obvious symptoms disappear, but this does not mean that the disease has receded. She became chronic with atrophy of the concha. All this against the background of supposedly improved condition in piglets.
The symptoms of atrophic rhinitis are irreversible and almost always reach serious consequences. It all begins in the nose, where the atrophic process of the nasal conchae and facial bones of the skull occurs. The internal glands and connective tissue are destroyed by inflammation. All this adversely affects the development of the upper jaw. Of the visible changes, it becomes much shorter than the lower, the upper and lower incisors do not match.
Due to atrophic rhinitis, there is deformation of the bones of the head, as there is no nutrition. All because the network of vessels of nasal bones disappears. There everything is filled with fibrous tissue. The whole process originates in the nose, and after that goes to the bones and jaws.
In a pig, pugs can be observed when both nasal cavities are affected and the nose is pointing upwards. There is also curvature - if one half of the nose is affected due to atrophic rhinitis and the jaw is moved to the side. This occurs in 50% of pigs who are 4 months old. Because of such deformations of bones, animals cannot properly and fully feed. Accordingly, they lack weight, grow poorly and do not develop enough.
Often atrophic rhinitis causes such complications as bronchitis, pneumonia, purulent otitis, nervous problems (if the pathology has reached the brain membrane), due to which adult pigs and young animals die.
Irreversible effects and diagnosis
In particularly difficult cases of atrophic rhinitis in pigs, changes occur in the nasal shells. They are destroyed so much that you can only see the folds of the mucous membrane with purulent secretions. The cartilage is very thin and twisted. The bones of the upper jaw are in the same condition.
Pig production, like any animal husbandry, involves daily observation of animals in order to detect rhinitis disease in time. Sneezing piglets is the first sign of an acute course of the disease, in which you can still help.
Nasal congestion can be determined in a simple way - for a second hands close the nasal passages. When the hand is removed, the piglet takes a heavy breath, due to which it sneezes. A sign of the disease can serve as an incorrect bite of the incisal teeth.
Atrophic rhinitis can be diagnosed with x-rays. However, this method is not always easy to implement. The pig is fixed on the back in a trough and with the help of an X-ray machine like 781 a snapshot is taken. If the individual is healthy, then the nasal passages are clearly and distinctly visible. If these lines are not visible, then this indicates a progressive course of atrophic processes.
A laboratory test of mucus taken from the nose will help detect the causative agent. With the survey, you can exclude or confirm swine flu and necrobacteriosis.
Get rid of trouble
Treatment of atrophic rhinitis in pigs will bring a positive result only if it occurs at the initial stage, during the acute course of the disease. This will help avoid bone deformation.
Medicines such as antibiotics and sulfonamides for irrigation of the nasal cavity do well with rhinitis. They are advised by veterinarians. Solutions of "Penicillin", "Biomitsin", "Stremtomycin", "Dibiomycin" help to fight the disease.
Simultaneously with the irrigation of the nose, vitamin preparations — D2 and D3 — are injected into the muscles of the pigs. They are metered in the calculation of 100 units. per 1 kg of body weight of the animal. This complex treatment can last up to three weeks.
If the disease is started, and the process of atrophy and deformation - pug-shapedness, curvature, goes, then these pigs are rejected. They are not treatable. Those individuals who have been treated at the acute stage of the disease and are cured are still not considered safe. They should not be removed from the farm, but should be fattened on the spot.
First of all, in order not to infect the infection, farmers need to ensure that all rules and standards for the maintenance and feeding of pigs are observed. Food should be complete, balanced, with the addition of vitamins and minerals. In this regard, you probably will be interested in the article "What to do if a pig eats poorly and slowly grows." Animals must walk with good quality, and newly arrived individuals are quarantined for 30 days.
If a livestock infection with atrophic rhinitis was recorded in a pigsty, then all infected individuals should be sent for slaughter (treatment in large farms is not economically viable). The territory of their habitat is disinfected, and new animals are brought. Young piglets are removed in order to reproduce the herd qualitatively. When in the course of a year, starting from an extreme case of the disease, everything was without similar incidents, the farm could again receive a safe status.
There are also methods of emergency disinfection of piglets in order to protect them from atrophic rhinitis - this is the treatment with long-acting antibacterial agents - Dibiomycin and Detraetracycline.
In order to exclude infection with this disease, a vaccine against atrophic rhinitis of pigs is used. This is Porcilis AR or Atrobac-3. Sows vaccination put in the third trimester of gestation. In the first cycle once and after 3-6 weeks a second time. All subsequent cycles - once for 14 days before farrowing.
With Atrobac-3, pigs and boars are immunized every six months. Vaccination and good housing conditions of pigs significantly delay the appearance of the clinical form of atrophic rhinitis. For disinfection, such agents as Virkon, Galamid, Rapicid, Agrosteril have recommended themselves well.
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