Now pigs edema disease is the main disease among pigs. Along with plague, colibacteriosis, salmonellosis, dysentery, hemophilic polyserosis, it causes the death of animals on many farms. Pathology in some cases affects from 40 to 60% of pigs on the farm. It was first officially registered in the territory of Northern Ireland in 1938, but by the middle of the 20th century, it had visited almost all parts of the world.
Enemy need to know in person
At the end of the 19th century, the doctor Theodor Escherich, a native of Austria, was able to describe the causative agent of many intestinal infections - E. coli. In honor of the discoverer, it is also called Escherichia coli (E. coli). Subsequently, several strains of these bacteria were isolated, among which there are very dangerous for humans and animals.
In the middle of the 20th century, Soviet scientists identified a strain of E. coli-coli, causing edematous disease in piglets (colibacillosis). It is β-hemolytic, destroying β-hemolysin - the erythrocyte membrane. Strain is especially dangerous in case of vitamin deficiency (group B) and lack of calcium in the body.
This pathogenic bacillus is characterized by the fact that it releases toxic substances, can interact with other microorganisms, live in a pigsty for up to two months (in water, feces, food debris, soil). She is afraid of high temperatures and disinfection.
Disease chooses the best
The disease comes on suddenly, accompanied by paralysis of the limbs, as well as edema of the eyelids, submandibular space, dehydration, the depressed or agitated state of the pig, cramps, seizures, muscle tremors. Symptoms depend on the form of the disease.
It is recorded in pigs at 45-50 days of age and after weaning from sows (in the first two weeks). At the same time, to the chagrin of the owner, the well-fed piglets, as a rule, are the best in the litter. The disease in the household lasts 7-10 days and ends abruptly, as it begins.
Pathogenic bacillus enters the body of the animal from the environment.
Its source is mainly infected feces, which are accidentally swallowed with food by piglets. Adult pigs do not suffer from edematous disease, but may be carriers of treacherous E. coli.
Fertile soil for E. coli
Piglets edema can start at any time, regardless of the season, but more often in summer and autumn. Escherichia coli is activated at weaned piglets due to:
- stress (separation from the mother, mixing with other piglets, the formation of a group hierarchy);
- monotonous low-vitamin feed;
- abrupt transition from one type of feeding to another;
- unsanitary conditions in the pigsty, violations of zoohygiene, lack of separate premises for piglets and sows;
- lack of exercise of animals (walking in the open air or in special rooms, corridors).
Most often the disease is associated with nutrition. Often, dry concentrated feed becomes the main course of a piglet after weaning. It is less digestible, it is based on starch and carbohydrates. It can not be compared with the easily digestible milk of sows containing fat, protein and lactose.
E. coli sticks
Due to the change of feed in a piglet, the stability of the intestinal mucosa and the activity of digestive enzymes are reduced. Feed masses are not absorbed, they put pressure on the walls, stagnation is formed.
Due to the violation of the barrier function, the permeability of the intestinal epithelium increases, which makes it easier for bacteria, toxins, antigens to enter the body. These pathogenic microorganisms secrete hemotoxins, which enter the bloodstream, which leads to dystonia of blood vessels, an increase in their permeability, and the appearance of puffiness. Many internal organs of a piglet swell (as an autopsy shows).
Nervous disorders (convulsions, impaired coordination, paralysis, seizures) are associated with swelling of piglet brain tissue.
The cause of the death of a pig in an edematous disease is usually suffocation due to pulmonary edema.
Three forms of the disease
Edema disease in piglets can occur in over-acute, acute and chronic forms.
When the first symptoms do not appear - just do not have time, the pig immediately dies. At the same time on the eve he looked healthy and with appetite absorbed food.
During the swelling in the acute form, the gait of the piglet becomes uncertain, coordination of movements is disturbed, and there is a noticeable tremor. The temperature rises, the pulse quickens, breathing becomes heavy. Not uncommon - complete immobilization and epileptic seizures. Swelling of the head, eyelids, cyanosis of the patch and abdomen are noticeable. These symptoms can be observed from 3 to 12 hours, less often - several days (2-3 days).
In older calves, a chronic form of swine edema occurs. It is determined by depression, loss of appetite, sticking pigs. They tend to get better, but are lagging behind in development.
An accurate diagnosis is required.
The symptomatology and a clinical picture of an edematous disease has something in common with other diseases.
Establishing the diagnosis, it is important not to be mistaken and to exclude listeriosis, erysipelas, plague, Aujeszky's disease, epizootic encephalomyelitis, various kinds of poisoning, vitamin deficiency, hypocalcemia, which are similar in individual symptoms.
The error is practically excluded when studying the data of the opening.
For example, in case of Aujeszky's viral illness, convulsions, low mobility, and instability of gait are also observed due to a disturbance of the nervous system. However, the main symptom of this disease is scratching on the skin, and pickling shows only pulmonary edema. When an edematous disease increases many organs - the walls of the stomach, liver, spleen, brain.
Paralysis - a symptom of swelling is also a sign of epizootic encephalomyelitis, but with the latter, it is accompanied by vomiting and stinging saliva.
Noticed E. coli - prepare heavy artillery
Noticing the first symptoms of the disease, you can not hesitate.
Conjured piglets need to be insulated by preparing a fresh litter in advance. They should not be fed for 18-24 hours, but you can give water, better with a solution of glauber salt (6%).
To normalize the nervous system, a piglet is given calcium chloride (10%), and calcium gluconate (20 ml) is injected with 10% novocaine (10 ml). Stress reactions also remove diphenhydramine and chlorpromazine.
To cleanse the body of toxins, the piglets are given magnesium sulfate (1-5 g as a powder or 5-25 ml of solution), including for a cleansing enema (1% solution). Also helps diuretic urotropin (40% solution). It is prescribed 1-2 times a day for 10 ml.
Veterinarians recommend in case of an edematous disease to make a piglet injections of antiallergic drugs (2.5% solution of pipolfen, suprastin, diphenhydramine), as well as prednisolone, normalizing metabolism.
The right remedy is antibiotics.
The treatment of a pig for intestinal disease includes taking antibiotics. Prescribe medication, determine the duration of the course and dose is better for the veterinarian.
It should be borne in mind: E. coli bacillus is not susceptible to all antimicrobial agents. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct laboratory studies of the strain, its reaction to the antibiotic.
Gentamicin, streptomycin, furazolidone, neomycin sulfinate, sulfanilamide are suitable for fighting infection.
After a course of antibiotics, it is very important to normalize the microflora in the piglet’s intestines. This is facilitated by the use of bifidobac, bifilact, enterocid, enterosan, acidophilus. Further, probiotics and prebiotics help maintain the intestinal flora. This should be done not only in piglets, but also in sows, since it is the main vector of infection.
Clean, comfort, food
In order to avoid an outbreak of intestinal infection, it is necessary to strictly monitor each piglet, monitor the conditions and technology of feeding animals. E. coli wand is a permanent resident of the pigsty, but elementary measures - cleaning the room with hot water (more than +70 degrees) and disinfection - easily destroy it.
It is necessary to keep troughs and drinkers in special purity, always clean up the remnants of food, rinse with boiling water, and dry.
Weaned piglets need to be smoothly transferred to a new feed, ensuring adaptation of the digestive system to vegetable feed. In the first days they are given half as much, gradually bringing it back to normal within a week.
Food should be balanced, contain dairy products, vitamins, minerals. Acidifiers are recommended to be added to the water (for example, Selco Rn), which suppress the multiplication of pathogens.
Useful sticks against harmful
For prophylactic purposes, new strengthening pigs are administered to newborn piglets, which make the body more resistant to E. coli and other pathogens. For example, non-specific globulin - 1 ml per 1 kg of mass.
For this, ABK is also suitable - a preparation containing an acidophilus bacillus - a harmless microorganism that improves intestinal function. She is a permanent inhabitant of the digestive tract, but the newborn piglets are absent. Up to 1 month they are given ABA in a volume of 15-30 ml.
Acidophilic bacillus is also contained in the PABA preparation, along with propionic acid bacteria and B group vitamins. The doses for prophylaxis are prescribed depending on the age of the pig: 10-15 mcg (at the age of 1-10 days), 15-20 mcg (11-20 days) , 20-30 mcg (21-30 days), 5 mcg per 1 kg of live weight (older than a month).
Vaccine Defender of Infection
To prevent a dangerous edema disease in piglets, you can use the vaccine "Serdosan", which counteracts not only it, but also other infections - colibacteriosis, pasteurellosis, anaerobic enteroxemia.
It is intended for pigs, all livestock are vaccinated. The piglet is given the first vaccination at the age of 10-15 days, after 2 weeks - the second one, after six months - revaccination (once).
When a difficult situation, piglets revaccinate earlier - in 3-4 months.
Immunity from E. coli sticks appears 15–16 days after the second vaccination.
"Serdosan" can be used to treat sick animals. In this case, the second vaccination is done in 5-7 days, and the third - in 7-10. The drug is well combined with antibacterial drugs.
In sows, the vaccine still prevents abortion and stillbirth. We advise you to read our article "Symptoms and treatment of erysipelas in a pig", which tells about a different pathology with similar symptoms.
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