Characteristic symptoms and treatment in case of poisoning in pigs can be completely different, because the animal is able to accidentally eat anything. Each case requires separate consideration. Pigs are omnivores and do not feel full. They are ready to sweep everything in their path. To avoid a negative impact on their body, the farmer needs to make a clear menu and remove all potentially dangerous substances. Methods of treatment of different types of intoxication will be discussed in this article.
Pigs can get poisoned by anything, since their bodies do not feel full and cannot distinguish between the quality of food. There are different types of intoxication that occur after consuming the following substances:
- substandard or inappropriate foods;
- toxic chemicals;
- poisonous plants;
- excess protein.
Swine poisoning can be seasonal. Special vigilance should be in the spring, when there is a high probability of accumulation of sodium chloride in the animal's body. This happens if the host fed the piglet with pickles.
In the autumn, frequent intoxications from poor-quality root crops occur, because it is time to harvest. In case of inattention to the diet, the pig is highly likely to eat spoiled food.
Signs of poisoning in piglets can vary, and the veterinarian will determine the correct treatment and nutrition. Below we consider the possible symptoms in more detail and tell you what to do in each case.
Careful with root vegetables
A piglet can easily poison potatoes. That's because green or sprouted roots contain solanine - a toxic substance. It should not be eaten. If a pig eats it, it becomes oppressed, even convulsions and death. The first signs of poisoning are drooling and diarrhea.
In this case, the pig should hold a gastric lavage and solder a lot of fluid with a mild laxative. It can be either castor or petroleum jelly.
Pig can also be poisoned and beets. This is a vegetable in which a lot of sugar and give it in fresh or boiled form. However, when there is a long-term effect on this root crop of low temperature, nitrites are formed in it.
You can not leave the beets to cool completely in the liquid in which it is boiled, water should be immediately drained. Also, do not long for steaming food that contains this root vegetable. Old tops are also a cause of animal poisoning.
If nitrites get into the body, the mucous membrane turns yellow in the piglet, the body temperature rises and salivation increases. The animal weakens, and breathing quickens. You can help by washing, drinking plenty of water and mucous broths (from starch or rice).
In addition to root crops, pigs can be poisoned with food, affected by mold. Do not give animals rotten and frozen vegetables. Especially carefully checked food for sows or pregnant individuals. Moldy production causes the death of piglets and abortions in pregnant pigs.
Another useful, but potentially dangerous for the pig product - cotton cake. It contains toxic gossypol. Intoxication occurs literally on the second or third day of feeding, or after prolonged consumption. To prevent this, the cake is poured slaked lime and insist day. This mixture in an amount of not more than 300 g is added to the feed for 4-5 weeks. Then there is a break of 2 weeks.
Flax meal can cause pigs intoxication, as the composition contains linamarin glycoside. From it can form hydrocyanic acid. Therefore, this product should be fed in portions or after heat treatment at temperatures above 65 degrees.
Castor bean seeds are often added to pig feed. In order to prevent alkoloidricin poisoning, they are washed with 10% sodium chloride solution. When it becomes transparent, the seeds are ready to eat. Also, safety can be achieved if 2 hours to heat the product to 150 degrees.
If the above plants with certain treatments can be given to pigs, then there are special poisonous plants that they generally do not want to eat. However, they can get food by accident. Therefore, when feeding with herbs, you need to make sure that no harmful herbs got there.
These include: foxglove, lily of the valley, buckwheat, St. John's wort, horsetail, oleander, hemlock, tobacco, euphorbia. They all cause intoxication, which has such signs as strange behavior, indigestion, and heavy breathing. When this occurs, there is a violation of the central nervous system (CNS) and rapid heartbeat.
You can help the standard methods - washing and drinking plenty of water. Mucous broths also cope very well.
Poisoning salt in pigs is considered the most dangerous form of intoxication. Already within 30 minutes you can see the first signs - thirst, vomiting, wide pupils, rapid pulse and redness of the skin. Also, the animal will be indifferent to food.
It is possible to poison a pig in this way if you feed it with feed mixtures for cattle, as they contain a large amount of sodium chloride. Adding salty foods can also negatively affect the body. This is fish, meat, cheese and other pickles.
For an adult pig, 2 kg of salt is enough to be fatal, a piglet is enough and 3.7 g per 1 kg of weight. For them it is a great danger, since the poisoning is acute and develops very quickly. Excess sodium and loss of potassium leads to poor metabolism. In addition, pulmonary edema and oxygen starvation of organs and tissues of the body begins. Death is due to asphyxiation.
Such symptoms as seizures, high fever, convulsions, and impaired blood circulation in the extremities can be attributed to the acute course of intoxication. The pig falls to its feet and may be comatose. Another factor in salt poisoning can be attributed to the fact that a poisoned animal will rest its head against a wall. Already behind all this is a fatal outcome.
If there is an acute course of poisoning with table salt - and this happens most often - then it can last from 1 to 2 days and you need to provide help before the pulse slows down.
As soon as the symptoms of saline toxemia were noticed, help should be urgent to avoid the worst. Before the arrival of the veterinarian, a pig or a piglet is given a gastric lavage. Drinking is given in small portions, but often. If the form is severe, then the liquid is forbidden to give, otherwise the situation will worsen.
We continue treatment with injections
The second step is intramuscular administration of calcium gluconate. The dose is calculated depending on the degree of poisoning. It can vary from one to five vials of 10 ml 4-5 times per day.
The next drug will be a 1% triammon phosphate solution. It is dosed in the amount of 0.4 g per 1 kg of pig weight.
Oil laxatives are administered to animals, and in order to avoid this disorder, a 10% sodium chloride solution, mucous broths and drinking are prescribed. In order to prevent re-poisoning of the pig, one should not add table salt to the food, later it is introduced gradually.
Adults and suckling sows will be enough for 40-50 g every day, for pregnant women - 30-40 g. 10-15 g each will be added to the nutrition of a three-month-old pig and further increase the rate with increasing age. Water supply is stable and affordable.
Toxic chemicals, protein and drugs
In pig breeding, rat poisoning of animals can occur. Signs of this are manifested in rapid breathing, difficult inhalation, copious salivation in pigs, loss of coordination, paralysis, and altered behavior. Help, as always, is based on gastric lavage. Next, milk feeding, assignment of mucous broths and oil emulsions takes place.
In case of arsenic poisoning, the drug Dicaptol is administered intravenously. Dose of 1 ml per 1 kg of pig mass.
If the piglet gets too much protein in the body, it gives a poisoning effect. Lost interest in food, there is a weakness and loose stools with bloody impurities. With such intoxication will cope easier than with all of the above. It is only necessary to reduce the amount of protein in food and increase the amount of products containing fats with carbohydrates.
Foam from the mouth
With excessive use of drugs there are convulsions, drooling, rapid heartbeat, vomiting, loose stools, shortness of breath. There may be both arousal and weakness. This is done by washing the stomach and the use of laxative oil solutions.
It is not always clear why pigs have foam from their mouths in each case of poisoning. Know that in fact, such a symptom can accompany any kind of described pathology. Sometimes excessive salivation can be confused with foamy masses.
Vomiting, bloating, diarrhea, or constipation may be added to this symptom. A pig may have a wobbly gait and fever. This can also apply to any kind of poisoning.
Keep poison out of reach
If the pig has laid down and does not get up, or has a precarious gait, then veterinarians can advise intramuscular caffeine injection of 10-20 ml. It is also necessary to wash the stomach, drink plenty of water. Chamomile decoction and laxatives have a good effect.
Most importantly, you need to carefully monitor the quality of the feed. It must be fresh and balanced. In some cases, the veterinarian may create a personalized menu. All toxic substances and chemicals must be kept in inaccessible places. If it is necessary to bait the rodents, the poison is decomposed there, where the pig does not go.
In the article "Why the pig lies and does not eat," you can find out other reasons for the uncharacteristic behavior of pigs.
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