One of the most common swine diseases caused by worms (worms) is swine ascariasis. This disease most often affects young growth, slowing its growth and development. In addition, roundworm in the body of animals provoke an aggravation of other pathologies. Piglets are more likely to get sick with plague, viral pneumonia, salmonellosis. In the absence of prophylaxis, this worm infestation causes great economic damage to pig breeding and to each specific farm.
Pathogen helminth disease of pigs
Roundworm belongs to the class of roundworms (nematodes). These are dioecious helminths of light color with a length of up to 35 cm. In males, the tail is turned toward the abdomen, which distinguishes them from females.
Mature forms of parasites are localized inside the small intestine of pigs. It is there that the larvae mature to adult individuals at the end of their migration throughout the body. At the same time, the parasite females lay up to 200 eggs (cysts) daily, which are distinguished by increased resistance to adverse effects of various nature.
This is facilitated by their multi-layered structure, solid durable shell. With fecal masses, Ascaris cysts get out, infecting the soil, plants, and natural open water bodies.
Ideal conditions that ensure the rapid development of parasite eggs to the invasive form in the environment is high humidity, abundance of oxygen, temperature of 24-26 degrees. Under such circumstances, cysts mature in about a month.
Stages of life and parasite form
After the helminth eggs enter the piglet’s body, the development cycle of the pork roundworm begins. In the intestines of animals from them appear the larvae, which penetrate through the mucous membrane into the vessels, and then into the alveoli, bronchi, trachea and lungs.
During migration, the parasites feed on porcine tissues, blood cells, destroying red blood cells.
They block the respiratory tract of the animal, cause coughing in pigs. As a result, the Ascaris larvae enter the oral cavity and are swallowed again, penetrating into the small intestine.
After 1.5-3 months, they reach sexual maturity. The life span of worms at this stage can reach ten months. During this time, the worms begin to lay eggs, which are displayed outside. They contaminate the environment and ripen in it to an invasive form.
The most favorable for maturation of helminth cysts is a soft, friable soil, which reliably protects them from sunlight, cold, and drying.
Ways of infecting animals
Pork ascaris poses the greatest threat to dairy pigs between the ages of 2 and 6 months, since their immune system has not yet been formed. Adult animals are much less exposed to infection due to the development of immunity.
Pigs are infected through feed, water, direct contact with plants and soil on which ascaris eggs are located. In addition, the infection can concentrate on the skin of animals, including the nipples of sows. In such cases, the piglets become infected while sucking milk.
The carriers of the disease are often flies, earthworms, beetles. A large number of parasitic cysts accumulate everywhere on insect legs. If a piglet accidentally swallows flies or earthworms, then helminth eggs get into its body.
Thus, the risk of infection varies depending on the conditions of the animals. Untimely cleaning, changing bedding, high humidity inside the premises for animals, greatly increase the likelihood of helminthic invasion. In addition, poor nutrition of pigs causes them to dig the soil. At the same time the probability of infection of pigs is significantly increased.
If you are interested in other parasites, then in the article “Pork tapeworm: ways of infection and symptoms” we tell about another dangerous helminth.
How roundworms affect the body of pigs
Depending on the stage of development of the parasite, the pig body is affected in different ways. The stage of migration of Ascaris larvae negatively affects the health of animals.
Moving through the circulatory system, worms destroy the walls, the mucous membrane of small lymphatic, blood vessels. They injure the tissues and organs of the swine organism, poisoning animals with the products of their vital activity.
This leads to inflammatory processes, internal hemorrhages, dysfunctions of the respiratory, circulatory and digestive systems of pigs. In addition, the liver, heart, lungs of animals suffer.
Metabolism products of parasites poison the pig body, causing allergic reactions of varying severity. It weakens the immune system, reduces the resistance of pigs to bacterial and viral diseases. Roundworm destroys red blood cells, causing anemia. They directly affect the nervous system of animals.
Parasites create mechanical obstructions inside the respiratory tract, causing a cough. A large number of nematodes in the pig intestines can provoke its obstruction, mechanical breaks. This often leads to peritonitis in pigs.
External manifestations of pork ascariasis
Symptoms of infection with ascaris depend on the stage of development of the disease. The migration phase of the life cycle of parasites determines the acute course of helminthic invasion, and the chronic form characterizes the intestinal stage of the life of helminths.
In the acute course of the disease in pigs, the following symptoms are identified:
- gnashing of teeth, incoordination, convulsions, paralysis;
- swelling, rash, inflammation of the skin;
- cough, wheezing, purulent mucous discharge from the nostrils, respiratory disorders;
- pneumonia with fever;
- cold nose, ears, limbs;
- weakness, fatigue, decreased vital activity;
- puffiness in the eyelids, jaws;
- nausea, vomiting.
The chronic course of helminthic invasion is manifested by decreased appetite, weight loss, wasting, diarrhea, and constipation. At the same time in adult animals, this stage often proceeds without any external manifestations.
Diagnosis of the disease
Early detection of infection with worms makes it possible to prevent mass ascariasis in pigs. The main diagnostic tools are laboratory studies of animal feces. On large pig farms, an analysis is carried out selectively in 20–30 piglets, pigs and wild boars. This allows you to control the epidemiological situation inside the pig herd.
An accurate diagnosis, revealing helminthic invasion helps the drug for the manufacture of which are used adult ascaris tissue. Confirmation of a positive diagnosis is indicated by a round mark on the skin of an animal of dark red color. It should appear after five minutes at the site of subcutaneous administration of this agent in the area of pig ears. At the same time in an hour such a sign disappears completely.
At necropsy of animals after their death as a result of the disease, porcine liver, lungs, intestines are examined. Often found pneumonia, hepatitis, blockage or rupture of the intestines. According to the Berman method, the larvae of the worms are detected inside various internal organs.
Methods of effective treatment of animals
In large pig farms, therapeutic procedures are carried out simultaneously for a group of animals, the number of which should not exceed one hundred heads. In this case, pigs or pigs of the same age are selected. Drugs are added to the inside of the moistened, concentrated animal feeds, which are distributed evenly across all feeders. It is important to monitor their eating. If the pigs refuse to eat, then they are treated additionally, separately from the general herd. It is important all this time to keep pigs indoors with solid concrete floors.
Approximately two weeks after the start of therapeutic measures, the animals are carefully examined and, if necessary, the treatment is repeated. Inventory, walls, floors of the room, which contains pigs, should be regularly treated with hot caustic soda, 15% fresh-quenched lime. Fresh vegetables included in the pork feed are recommended to be scalded with boiling water.
Medicinal and folk remedies against ascaris
An excellent therapeutic antihelminthic agent is "Albendazole", "Mebendazole". "Gigrovetin" is used as a feed additive, which is given to small piglets as a prophylactic agent. At the same time 1.5 kg of the drug is enough for one ton of feed. Salt "Piperazina" mixed with pork food, which is given to animals in the morning and evening. Small piglets up to 10 kg is 0.3 mg per 1 kg of live weight. "Pyrantel" is given to pigs twice a day with food at the rate of 12 mg per kilogram of animal weight. Ivomek Premix is used for treatment for a week. 0.33 mg of this product is enough for one ton of feed.
The most popular and universal folk antihelminthic medicine since time immemorial is garlic. This plant kills any worms. In the ratio of 1 g per 1 kg of live weight of the animal, the crushed vegetable was added inside the pork feed mixtures.
In addition, an effective remedy against worms is tansy flower powder. The dosage differs depending on the weight of the pig: a teaspoon once a day for animals up to 30 kg, a dining room for heavier pigs.
A good therapeutic effect gives a mixture of tansy and garlic, dissolved in milk, which is added to the feed. Therapeutic course lasts two weeks. For a long time, raw pumpkin seeds, sauerkraut, cucumbers, beet tops, clover, and pine needles have been used as medicines for ascariasis of pigs.
Strict observance of sanitary rules will help prevent pigs from becoming infected with ascaris. It is required to clean manure daily at the place where the animals are kept, to clean the pork feeders before feeding and periodically with an interval of 10 days to process them with boiling water and a solution of soda ash.
In the warm season it is recommended to transfer pigs to pasture. In the fall, these areas should be plowed. Such measures will allow to get rid of parasites in the environment by drying and direct sunlight. Inside the soil, manure cysts Ascaris can remain viable for up to 5 years, therefore, when identifying worm infestation, the collected pork manure is put in a separate pit and burned. Twice a year, it is recommended to carry out planned measures for deworming animals.
Young pigs and adult pigs should preferably be kept separate. New pigs are placed inside the herd only after a month-long quarantine with a survey on worms. The feeding diet of pigs must be balanced, contain a sufficient amount of carotene, vitamins, minerals, as beriberi make piglets more vulnerable to worms.
In conclusion, let's say whether it is possible to eat the meat of an infected pig. Since roundworms die under the influence of temperatures above 70 degrees, the long-term high-quality heat treatment of pork disinfects it, kills the worms. Without such measures it is not recommended to use these products.
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