Among the infectious diseases characterized by acute, is dysentery of pigs. Manifestations of the disease are considered the presence of animal blood and mucus in the faeces of the animal, as well as necrosis in the gastrointestinal tract. Until the beginning of the last century, the piglets were not diagnosed with this pathology, although it has been registered for a long time. Instead, other notions were used, such as typhoid, black or red diarrhea. Today it is classified as a global and extremely dangerous infection.
Features of the disease
The causative agent of infection is the anaerobic spirochete Serpulina hyodysenteriae, capable of infecting animals of any age and breed. Young individuals that are not yet six months old are most susceptible to the disease.
Infection occurs as a result of the joint stay and feeding of healthy pigs with patients or who have had this infection. The latter for a fairly long period of time can pose a threat to the entire livestock, so they are recommended to be sent for slaughter.
In some individuals, the disease can occur in a latent form, and this represents a serious danger to the safety of all other animals. Since the aggravation occurs immediately after the action of adverse factors. One of them is the delivery of piglets from one farm to another. As a result of contact in the process of the same food intake, infection of pigs becomes a real threat.
The most dangerous for an outbreak of the disease are winter and spring, when the conditions of animals and their feeding are far from ideal. Under these conditions, the epidemic of dysentery of pigs becomes quite real, especially if the animals are in an unusual situation - the feed has changed, new individuals have appeared, temperature fluctuations have appeared.
The occurrence of the disease and its development
The mechanism of the onset of the disease is not yet fully understood. Most often, dysentery in pigs and piglets occurs as a result of disorders occurring in the gastrointestinal tract. As a result, the secretory function of the stomach of the pig and the bactericidal effect of its juice are reduced. Observed activation of the microflora and its acquisition of the nature of a pathogenic pathogen that invades the mucous membrane.
The vascular system of the mucous membrane of the colon of the pig clogged, which leads to its hyperemia and swelling. In the epithelial layer, there is accumulation of fibrin, hydrochloric acid leaves the gastrointestinal tract and pepsin activity decreases sharply.
Simultaneously with these processes, irritation of the mucous membrane occurs as a result of an increase in the concentration of lactic and acetic acid, as well as increased motility. All of the above factors fall into the category of diarrhea causing pigs, as well as intoxication of the animal.
Symptoms of the disease: acute form
The duration of the incubation period for dysentery is approximately three weeks. The disease usually occurs in three forms:
Occasionally there are situations when the disease in an animal is in a super-acute form. In this case, pig dysentery leads to death, and literally in a few hours. Youngsters under the age of 1 month show 100% mortality, they have an absolute intolerance to the disease.
Speaking about the symptoms of the acute form, it should be noted that the main indicator of the occurrence of the disease will be diarrhea that occurs within three days after the onset of the disease. At the same time, the body temperature of the pig remains normal, and there is no deterioration in appetite. Feces become watery in nature, and soon blood appears in them, which serves as the most reliable signal of the onset of dysentery lesion.
As a result of an increase in the volume of liquid stool, dehydration of the body of the animal begins, its exhaustion and increased thirst. The skin of a pig acquires a pale shade, the bristles dim, the tail wilts, and the eyes begin to sink.
When making any movements, the pig staggers heavily, and it vomits abundantly. In this state, the animal can stay no more than 5-6 days, after which it dies.
Other forms of the disease
The absence of temperature changes is a characteristic feature for the subacute form of dysentery in piglets. Feces come out in a moderate volume, they contain blood, and they also contain impurities of mucus. The skin turns pale, may get a bluish tint, the behavior of the animal becomes inadequate, for example, the pig may begin to drink liquid manure, experiencing a strong thirst.
The animal struck with chronic dysentery practically spends all its time without moving in a horizontal position. Diarrhea is irregular, the pig looks very emaciated.
In some cases, the general state of health of individuals does not change much, but as soon as any secondary infection penetrates the body, the pig is immediately exacerbated in complicated form of dysentery.
The main danger here is that the treatment being conducted does not always produce an effect, and the animal may die within literally several days. About temperature standards for animals can be found in the article "Body temperature in a pig."
Diagnosis of the disease and methods of dealing with it
The diagnostic methods used to detect dysentery in pigs use microbiological and symptomatic data. Basic information is provided by material taken from the colon or mucous membrane of an animal. If five or more spirochaetes with a characteristic morphology are detected, then this becomes the basis for a definite diagnosis.
Dysentery treatment in pigs is carried out with the help of Osarsol in combination with furazolidone, which makes it possible to achieve the maximum effect and eliminates the recurrence of the disease.
Osarsol is given on an empty stomach; before dacha, it is impossible even to wipe out water for 15-17 hours. The solution is prepared in the proportion of 2.5 g of the drug per 100 ml of water, and 10 g of sodium bicarbonate must be added here. The drug is used by animals with food.
Doses of medication for suckling piglets - up to 0.01 g; for those who already have their own - no more than 0.2 g, for young individuals - up to 0.5 g, for productive age pigs - from 0.6 to 0.7 g. Treatment is carried out for three days, giving the medicine twice a day.
Furazolidone usually continues the therapeutic measure described above. That is, the next three days, the sick animal receives this drug at the rate of 3 to 5 mg per kg of body weight of the pig.
Quarantine is required
In addition to these drugs, helping the animal can be based on the use of other drugs to which the pathogen will react. For example, "Nifulin", "Tilan", "Trihopol", "Vetdipasfen".
Prevention of dysentery is based on traditional principles, involving the creation of favorable conditions for the habitat and nutrition of animals. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that the probability of infection in the body of the pig was reduced to zero.
If there is a transportation of animals to a new place, it is necessary to sustain new individuals in quarantine, for about one month. For this period of time, several 100% healthy individuals from those already present in the herd are introduced into this group of new animals.
During the month, diagnostic studies are conducted and a selected group of pigs is monitored. In addition, planned activities are being carried out, involving the disinfection, disinfection and disinsection.
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