Sarcoptosis or scabies in pigs is caused by microscopic mites and causes great discomfort, which manifests as itching. This disease is quite common and can occur both chronically and acutely. It is usually caused by lack of hygiene and poor conditions. An important role is played by the fact that animals themselves are unscrupulous. So that the initial symptoms do not flow into a serious inflammation, it is necessary to diagnose and properly treat the disease.
Manifestation of the disease
Signs of scabies in piglets at the initial stage can be seen near the ears, eyes, in the area of the snout. If you do not start treatment, the disease moves further along the body, up to the hips. The appearance of grayish-white crusts on the skin suggests that the individual is affected by tick infestation.
Symptoms of scabies mites in pigs:
- an itch that plagues animals, and they are ready to rub on any surface to scratch the nidus of inflammation;
- the appearance of ulcers on the skin, which can erupt and form a crust;
- red skin near the eyes, on the snout and in the crotch area;
- loss of stubble in the affected area;
- severe anxiety and poor digestion of food.
If sarcoptosis progresses for a long time, then the pig begins to lose weight, and a small rash appears on the skin with bubbles that turn into dry scabs.
Even three-week-old piglets can become infected with a tick. In this case, the form of the disease may be allergic in nature. This also gives the pigs considerable discomfort, up to the formation of wounds on the skin, in which there is every chance of infection. If at an early age there was no quality treatment, then in young animals, due to the disease, the ears are deformed, with hemorrhages visible on the skin.
Scabies in pigs has various symptoms, among which are not only the above, but also such as poor appetite, lack of mobility, and an increase in crusts. If the sarcoptosis stage is started, the animal becomes aggressive and agitated.
The inflammatory process can lead to purulent secretions. In the case of infection of sows pathology affects all offspring.
When the acute stage of infection with scabies passes, the skin of the pig may become thicker - increase several times. The connective tissue is growing, there is a loss of hair in the pig.
Launched cases of tick-borne invasion can cause the death of pigs and piglets, because the body is intoxicated and exhausted.
Causes of infection
There are two types of ticks that parasitize pigs. Sarcoptes parvula prefers animal ears - shells and auditory passages. Adult individuals are susceptible to the disease and its form rarely causes serious complications.
Sarcoptes suis can be found on animals of different ages, and the form is called total. Ticks capture all new skin areas, and there’s no reason to guess at the reason why piglets itch.
Both types of mites are very small and cannot be seen without a microscope, but they multiply on the surface of pigs' skin rather quickly. Sarcoptes suis can live in the ears and throughout the body. It is important not to confuse the first symptoms with the bites of other insects. A clear sign is the pair of holes in the skin.
The tick is able to penetrate the upper layer of piglet epithelium and lay eggs (if it is female), the number of which reaches 8 pieces at a time and fifty in a lifetime. Microscopic creatures feed on the epidermis, and the larvae develop in it for two weeks. At the same time, it is the female individuals that gnaw at the skin of the pigs, while the males live on the surface. If they do not receive food for 10 days, the parasites die.
You can become infected with a tick from contact with a diseased piglet, an infected environment or items of care. In agriculture, the main causes of infestation by parasites should be the contact of adult boars and sows, as they are in close contact.
Special danger lurks in poorly disinfected premises or pens, where small pigs can be placed. Bring a scabies mite can be on the inventory, on staff clothes. Carriers may be cats and small rodents.
For pigs and piglets, the danger increases if improper feeding occurs and due to this there is an excess of calcium in the body, as well as a lack of vitamins. Stress, poor conditions, poor sanitation - this all leads to the chronic form of scabies in animals.
Sarcoptes can easily be transmitted from pigs to humans. Agricultural workers and veterinarians are primarily at risk. Working with animals should be in overalls and gloves. We must not forget that these parasitic microorganisms are found on more than 50% of the owner's land.
In order to diagnose a disease, a itchy pig or any pig that causes concern are examined and examined for the presence of a tick.
To begin, the specialist must determine the visual symptoms and study the clinical picture. Thus, it turns out that this infection has been started in pigs or piglets.
Be sure to take tests that will help determine the animal tick. This is scraped with a scalpel on the affected skin of the pig, which is examined under a microscope. It is necessary to take the material from the auricles of the pig and preferably not from one individual, but from at least 10% of the piglets living in the same pen.
When detecting a scabies mite in pigs, you should immediately consult with experts how to treat animals and what to do so that the infection does not recur.
Extermination of parasites
There are several types of treatment for scabies mites - spraying animals with aerosols, watering solutions, injections, feed additives. But before treatment, the piglets need to mud the mud, if there is one, and the scabs are softened and gently removed. It will help the soap solution with creosote. After these manipulations, you can begin to treat scabies in pigs with external preparations.
These drugs include Sebacil, Chlorofos 2%, Diperid, Trichlormetaphos - 3 1.5%, Neostamazan, Creolin. The solution should be warm, from 20 to 25 degrees. The skin is irrigated with special attention to the area of the ears, snout, belly. The whole procedure of spraying and watering pigs and piglets takes place in the pen, but for a start all the food, bedding and feeding troughs are removed so that the product does not get into the body of animals.
If, after all, the poisoning has happened, then Atropine is given to the pigs. It is dosed with 1 ml per 100 kg body weight. Read more in the article "Symptoms and treatment of poisoning in pigs."
After 7-10 days spraying or pouring acaricidal solutions again repeat. And to destroy the parasites in the environment of the pigsty, the drug "Tactician" will do. It is necessary to dilute 10 ml of funds with the same ratio of water. Again, all inventory, feeders and bedding should be removed before processing the pen from mites, because the substance is toxic.
Feed and Pest Injections
If a pig itches because of tick infestation, then add special feeding in the food. But even if you mix everything thoroughly, it is not a fact that animals will eat everything that is necessary. Therefore, this method of treatment for scabies mites can be considered auxiliary.
For piglets developed tool "Ivomek Premix". It is intended to be added to feed 2 times with a break of one week. Dose of 0.1 mg per 1 kg of pig mass. Such food can be given to all pigs in the pen, which have a weight in the range of 35-40 kg.
The most reliable method of getting rid of pigs from ticks is recognized by injection means. First, it is an individual approach to piglets. Secondly, all individuals will receive their dose, which will be optimal. However, the drug can not affect the eggs of parasites. In order to kill ticks for sure, a re-injection is required when the larvae hatch.
Drugs used are Ivermectin and Doramectin. Any of them is metered at the rate of 1 ml per 33 kg of pig weight and injected subcutaneously. After two weeks, the procedure is repeated. During this treatment for invasion, you cannot use other drugs.
Traditional medicine and prevention
A farmer who treats pigs can also use folk remedies for scabies mites.
For example, mix sour cream and gunpowder - 3 to 1 and insist 3 hours. Such a mixture is treated problem areas in piglets. Helps and oil tincture chopped garlic, which will require 100 g per 0.5 liter of mustard oil. All components mix, bring to a boil, reduce heat and boil for 20 minutes, then cool and strain. The product is ready for skin treatment.
No less effective drug at home - 50 g of wild rosemary and 50 g of hellebore root. All grind and mix with hot melted lard. After cooling means to smear the lesion sites with a tick. If a pig gets its mouth to the problem area and tries to scratch, then it is better not to use the solution, as hellebore is poisonous.
You can make a special soap on the basis of economic, which is rubbed on a grater and melted in water over low heat. Add onion and garlic. When the mass hardens, animals affected by tick infestation, spread, and then wash off.
Remember that buying a pig or a piglet should be kept in quarantine. Three weeks and parasitological tests will be enough. It is also advisable to constantly inspect the animals in order not to start the disease.
If you liked the article, then put Like.
Write comments on the topic of lesions of swine scabies.