Proper storage and timely cooling of milk obtained from a cow, allows you to maintain its quality, which is highly valued at the enterprises for the processing of these valuable products. Processors without fail take into account not only the fat content, density and organoleptic qualities of the goods supplied by farmers, but also its acidity, the level of which is directly related to the number of bacteria contained.
The natural way to preserve quality
For hundreds of years, livestock keepers cool a useful product received from a cow for its longer storage. In ancient times, improvised milk coolers were used when tanks were lowered into wells or installed in cool springs, where the water temperature never rises above +4 degrees Celsius.
Over time, chemists have been able to prove that if, within 3 hours after milking, the resulting product is cooled to a temperature of +10 degrees Celsius, then the rate of development of bacteria in it from the body of an animal drops sharply. And the temperature of +4 degrees almost completely stops their division and reproduction, keeping the drink in a condition suitable for transportation and processing within 48 hours.
Cool with the help of available tools.
Owners of small farms do not have the opportunity to purchase expensive special equipment to cool the milk received from the cow, and are forced to use the available tools, creating coolers with their own hands.
The simplest equipment for cooling milk is an open bath in which the resulting milking product is placed. It is installed in an even wider and deeper tank, constantly filled with ice, snow or running water.
Cold water, as a rule, is pumped out from underground sources, and after use it is drained into special conduits and transported to a nearby reservoir. Such a device is easy to use, but physically very expensive, since milk must be mixed periodically. It also uses a very high consumption of water and electricity, reducing the profitability of the enterprise.
In the overwhelming majority of cases, livestock breeders seeking to develop their farm, over time, acquire better milk coolers, which are open and closed.
The main feature of the cooling equipment is the need to constantly maintain the temperature at about +4 degrees, for which systems are used to supply chilled water or freon.
Depending on the type of cooling and design features, such equipment is divided into:
- open-type milk tanks;
- closed cooling tanks;
- plate and tube heat exchangers.
Each of these types of equipment has advantages and disadvantages, which have to be taken into account by livestock breeders developing their own dairy farming.
By saving on the installation of powerful and high-quality coolers, it is possible to significantly reduce the indicators of the quality of milk, which large processors of the product refuse to acquire.
Installation of open-type dairy tanks
As mentioned above, all types of coolers work using ice, cold water and / or freon. Open tanks are tanks of various capacities, having an outer jacket through which coolant circulates. The milk is fed and its temperature is monitored through a hinged lid, as well as cleaning and maintenance.
With the direct use of ice or freon, special sensors must monitor the temperature, timely turning on and off the cooling equipment. There is a special mixing device, the blades of which rotate at a permissible speed of up to 48 revolutions per minute. This does not allow the milk to stagnate in the tank, for a long time in contact with supercooled walls and losing its organoleptic properties.
Closed thermoses - an effective tool
After each cooling process, the tank is thoroughly washed thoroughly using special disinfecting agents and large amounts of water. Such work is carried out manually, which leads to a loss of labor productivity of farm workers.
A closed type milk cooler made on the principle of a conventional thermos is the most efficient device that allows you to quickly reduce the temperature of the product and send it for recycling.
Milk obtained as a result of milking, after passing through the system of purification and disinfecting filters, enters a container that is completely isolated from the external environment, where it is rapidly cooled.
Domestic and foreign manufacturers of closed milk tanks offer various methods of rapid cooling, conventionally divided into direct and intermediate.
Direct and intermediate cooling
With direct cooling of milk on the farm with the walls of the inner container, freon is in direct contact. Operators need to closely monitor the performance of temperature sensors and the operation of the mixing system in order to prevent overcooling of the product or its freezing.
In the intermediate mode of operation of the cooling equipment in the lower part, the milk tank has a capacity in which ice is formed with the help of a freon unit. Subsequently, under the influence of heat from milk, the ice melts, and cold water with the help of special sprinklers is applied to the walls of the tank, cooling it.
With this method of cooling a limited amount of water is used, and the whole cycle is closed, which significantly reduces costs and saves the farmer from the need to install a mixing mixer. It is strictly forbidden to mix chilled and fresh milk in one container, this can provoke rapid growth of bacteria and quickly spoil the valuable product.
The washing of the tank after the removal of the next batch of cooled milk is carried out automatically with the help of a special system that supplies detergent substances and wash water.
The use of plate and tube heat exchangers
Given that reducing the temperature of milk is quite an energy-intensive process, livestock breeders use various methods in order to reduce energy consumption while maintaining the efficiency of such systems.
One of the practical solutions is the use of milk plate coolers. They are compact in size and can be integrated into the milk duct system.
The scheme of their work is very simple and somewhat resembles an ordinary household distiller, consisting of hollow steel plates between which rubber seals are installed. Milk is pumped through one cavity and cooled water or freon in the opposite direction.
The use of a plate-type milk cooler makes it possible to reduce the temperature of the product supplied via the milk line from the initial + 38 + 39 degrees Celsius to a temperature of + 15 + 17 degrees. Then the milk is fed into one of the types of tanks, where its temperature is brought to the required parameters.
Tubular coolers have a closed cycle in which melt water from ice formed by freon passes through pipes in the direction opposite to the movement of milk. Such equipment reduces the temperature of the product to + 8 + 10 degrees Celsius, giving the opportunity to cool the milk in the tank to standard values within one and a half hours, with allowable 3 hours.
Making the right choice is the key to increasing revenue.
The choice of special equipment for preserving the quality characteristics of milk received from cattle is an extremely important and responsible decision facing small, medium and large farmers. In order to decide which milk coolers are right for you, be sure to study their production characteristics, paying particular attention to the consumption of electricity and water.
When choosing a specific tank or installation, be sure to consult with experts and listen to their recommendations. Try to assemble your cooling system from the elements of one manufacturer, which guarantees its long-term and uninterrupted work, and for you will become a reliable source of steady income. And if you want to start making any dairy products, then the article "On equipment for the processing of milk" will be useful to you.
Like if the article was interesting and useful for you.
Share in the comments own methods of cooling milk and long-term preservation of its quality.