Causes and treatment of diarrhea in piglets

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In veterinary medicine, diarrhea in pigs is considered an alarm signal, often indicating the presence of pathogenic microbes and viruses in the body of animals. Only one fifth of all diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by this pathology, are not infectious. Diarrhea causes serious harm to the body, often takes the lives of small pigs. On farms there are epidemics with diarrhea syndrome. What is the cause of diarrhea in a pig and how to deal with it will deal in this article.

He has five reasons for this.

Causes of illness with diarrhea syndrome may be associated with:

  • violation of the conditions of keeping pigs, poisoning;
  • viral infections (enterovirus, epidemic diarrhea, rotavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis);
  • bacteria (salmonellosis, colibacteriosis, clostridiosis, dysentery);
  • fungi (microsporia, mycotoxicosis, candidomycosis);
  • parasites (coccidosis, ascariasis, balantidiosis).

In some cases, the infection may be mixed.

Fertile soil for pathogens is unsanitary conditions, dampness.

Since piglets eat everything, there is a danger of bacteria and other pathogens getting through the spoiled feed and other seemingly inedible things - rags, sawdust, pebbles. They can lick items and furniture, being poisoned with detergents, cleaners, varnish, gasoline, paint and other poisonous substances.

Attacks small and defenseless

Born piglets are highly susceptible to intestinal diseases, almost all - 90%. The immune function of the digestive tract does not work, the barrier mechanisms of the stomach are imperfect, thermal regulation is poorly developed. This can exacerbate the stress factor associated with abnormal or prolonged labor, temperature shock, poor conditions.

A high probability for piglets is to get pathogens from mom-sows. One of the dangerous infections is E. coli. Piglet diarrhea caused by this bacterium is called colibacillosis. It occurs in most pigs in the first 10 days (neonatal, mortality up to 50%), in 3 weeks (death up to 20%) and in the post-detachment time (at the age of 2-3 months, mortality up to 30%).

Diarrhea in small pigs is accompanied by periodic excessively watery feces with an admixture of blood, mucus, undigested milk.

Transient Diarrheal Problems

Most often 3 months piglets are transferred to feed for adult pigs. A change of diet in this transitional period provokes diarrhea. In babies, the protective properties of the intestinal mucosa are sharply reduced. The enzymes responsible for digestion become less active. Feed mixtures are poorly digested, begin to put pressure on the walls, stagnation in the digestive tract.

These processes increase the permeability of the intestinal membrane, which creates favorable conditions for the penetration into the body of various bacteria, toxins, antigens.

At three months of age, piglets begin not only to eat adult feed, but also to behave very agile. Pick up various pathogens of an adult pig can on a walking ground, intersecting with other animals, rodents, domestic birds.

Intestinal disorders can be caused by heat or frost, as well as overeating.

This enemy can not be overlooked

You can see that the piglet has zaponisil, you can with the naked eye. He often (more than 5 times) feces watery stool masses. They pour uncontrollably, they can see mucus, foam, bloody threads, undigested food.

Visual inspection of feces is very important - by their general appearance, color, consistency, you can determine the cause of diarrhea in pigs.

White feces talk about liver damage, excessive foaminess - about parasites, for example, worms, viral diseases. If the feces are black and bloody, then most likely there is bleeding in the intestinal tract. Very pungent smell - a sign of fermentation in the intestines.

Piglet diarrhea is very dangerous, the body is rapidly dehydrated with it, because of which the pigs weaken, lie down, lose their appetite.

From diarrhea go physiological disorders of the internal organs of the piglet, the metabolism is changing.

Bloody diarrhea is a sign of dysentery

Recently, cases of infection of piglets with dysentery, the first and main symptom of which is loose stools with blood and mucus, have become more frequent. Its causative agent is the bacterium Brachyspira.

Signs of dysentery in piglets begin to appear 1-2 weeks after infection (from other, as a rule, new animals, dirty equipment, for example, a trailer for transportation, manure).

The first feces are grayish-yellow flowers. Further, as the disease develops in the feces, you can see mucus, fibrin fibers, blood. After a week of diarrhea, a piggy stool may turn black.

If untreated, the disease leads to the death of the piglets. The reason is the death of intestinal tissues.

Dysentery can be chronic: piglets diarrhea periodically, lose weight, their skin becomes gray, eczema appears.

More on this in the article "Treatment of dysentery in pigs."

Diarrheal "plague" from distant countries

Epidemic diarrhea in piglets (EMF) in scale, danger compared with African plague. Outbreaks of this relatively new disease occur on different continents. Its pathogen, a highly pathogenic virus of the Coronaviridae family, claims millions of young livestock.

The disease covers, as a rule, all the livestock, half of which leads to death. The mortality of newly born piglets from this terrible disease is 100%.

Weaners, piglets who have had it, lag behind in development. In adult fattening individuals, the live weight decreases. In addition to diarrhea, vomiting and lack of appetite can be observed with this viral disease.

To treat diarrhea in piglets with EMF is impossible: there is no effective means. But it was noted that in the body of the sick sows, antibodies are produced that create protection against the virus in suckling babies.

First aid - water, salt, sugar

Mortally dangerous is the appearance of diarrhea in piglets, than treatment at home becomes very important from the first minutes of the disease. Babies die mostly from dehydration, within 12 hours. Consider what to do first.

To replenish the volume of lost fluid, the piglets are given a saline solution as a drink (1 tbsp per cup of water).

In severe cases, sodium chloride (0.9% solution) and calcium chloride (10% solution) must be administered intravenously. They help to normalize the water-salt balance in the body of a pig, to accelerate the production of enzymes.

With diarrhea, the vitality is sharply reduced, the nutrition of the brain is disturbed. It is associated with a decrease in blood sugar levels. Therefore, you can additionally give 5-10 ml of glucose (40% solution) every 4-6 hours. Sometimes intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injections of this preparation are prescribed to piglets (15-25% solution).

Complex drugs for dehydration

Less worries with the use of complex means of dehydration - they contain several substances that are necessary for piglets. Regidron helps to get rid of diarrhea and its consequences. In its composition it contains dextrose, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium citrate. A bag of this medication needs to be dissolved in 1 liter of water and using a spoon or syringe to give a pig at the rate of 10 mg per 1 kg of live weight.

The solution of the pharmaceutical "Ringer-Locke" contains similar elements. In addition to sodium and potassium chlorides, it contains glucose and calcium chloride. On one piglet should be from 25 to 100 ml of this drug.

Treatment for dehydration may include the use of Kalinata solutions.

and "Lers". The largest amount of active substances is contained in the second tool - in three different bags, which should be diluted in 10 liters of water and given to a pig with a drink.

Antibiotic punch

Only antibiotics can effectively fight the piglets that have entered the body. If there are no infections, their purpose is not necessary. Treatment of diarrhea in a piglet involves the use of a number of the following medicines.

Brovaseptol powder is added to food, focusing on a dose of 1 g per 10 kg of live weight. Treatment - 3-5 days. In some cases, prescribe injections of this drug.

The course of taking "Akolara" is 3 days. It is given orally (by mouth) in a volume of 1 g per 10 kg of animal weight, previously diluted in water.

Highly effective treatment of diarrhea gives "Brovafom." This medication is prescribed for 5-7 days for pre-oral intake in the morning and evening. For adult pigs - 1 kg per 1000 liters of water, for piglets - 0.5 g per 10 kg of animal weight.

Also, with diarrhea, you can give a well-known amoxicillin, tetracycline, levometsitin.

Proven folk methods

Pig breeding is the most ancient branch of animal husbandry, you can safely use the accumulated experience in this area, including for the treatment of pigs for diarrhea. The most important thing is to determine what caused the diarrhea, and make sure that it does not have an infectious nature.

Treatment involves the preparation of infusions of chamomile, calendula, sea buckthorn, chicory, nettle, oak bark (20 g per 0.5 l of water).

Folk remedies are also decoctions of rice, flax seeds and oatmeal (envelop the walls of the gastrointestinal tract), water with lemon (restores electrolyte balance), a weak solution of manganese (astringent, antiseptic), alcohol extract needles (disinfects).

These recipes are suitable for very young pigs. Before feeding babies, traditional medicine also recommends: give them 1 tbsp. spoon of vegetable oil (corn or sunflower).

There is a vaccine, but not for every occasion.

Preventing illness is always easier and more often cheaper than curing. Since diarrhea is a companion to many infections, vaccination against infectious diseases is an effective way to combat it.

To prevent diarrhea in newborn babies, sows are vaccinated. For this purpose, in particular, the drug Porcilis ColiClos, struggling with E. coli - the main causative agent of neonatal diarrhea. Then in piglets diarrhea does not appear due to immunity, transferred to them by the maternal organism. The first injection of this medication is a pig for 6-8 weeks before giving birth, the second - in 4 weeks.

Also for the prevention of diarrhea in piglets, suckers caused by E. coli, use the tool "Neocolipore". The mechanism is similar - through the development of immunity in farrow pigs, protection passes to the babies.

But against dysentery, an effective vaccine, for example, has not yet been invented for some reason.

Properly feed and keep clean

In addition to vaccination, there are other important measures to prevent diarrhea in piglets. First of all, it is necessary to follow the rules of feeding: animals should eat by the clock, the diet should be balanced. In the diet, be sure to add carrots, milk, peas.

Do not give piglets stale and spoiled food: their gastrointestinal tract is very sensitive to the quality of food.

For normal development, piglets need different trace elements and vitamins. For this purpose, simple preparations will be suitable, for example, fish oil, complex vitamins, balanced mixtures containing phosphorus, iodine, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and other elements.

And, of course, an important place in the prevention is the maintenance of cleanliness and zoohygiene in the pigsty. The room for piglets should be dry, clean and warm.

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