The milking pulsator is undoubtedly the most important part of it. This mechanism converts a constant vacuum into a variable, due to which the cows are milked. At the same time, they differ in the principle of operation, complexity, efficiency and, consequently, price. Also, some require qualified service, others - the strength to fix any milkmaid. At the same time, the efficiency of the process and the value of milk yield largely depend on this part.
The essence of machine milking and the role of mechanisms
Milking machines are push-pull and three-stroke, but always the milking itself is carried out by the pulsator. Thanks to him, there is a change of compression and sucking, or compression, sucking and resting.
Three-stroke machines that allow cow nipples to rest during the milking process are preferable to two-stroke machines. They sparingly treat udder, do not provoke mastitis, although the milk with them is slightly less. Pulsators set many parameters of the milking machine: the change of beats, the frequency of the pulsations themselves, the effect of milking on the nipples and udder of the cow, and productivity.
In fact, the work of the pulsators is to switch the vacuum and air pressure. There are four main groups of these devices:
In addition, they can be divided into regulated and unregulated, as well as mechanisms for simultaneous and pairwise milking. We will tell about all types in detail.
Harder is not always better
For milking installation, the reliability of the pulsator is important. If it breaks, the milkmaid has to work manually, but she physically will not be able to milk all the cows, even if there are only 50 of them on the farm.
In the first case, they are equipped with filters that prevent clogging, make them closed and complicated in terms of design. If such a pulsator fails, the milkmaid will not be able to repair it herself. These mechanisms require prevention, the availability of spare parts. Often found in milking machines parts of foreign production. Usually they are membrane or piston.
In the second case, the part, on the contrary, is so simple that even a non-professional can assemble and disassemble it in two accounts. This facilitates the work of the milkmaid, who in the event of a breakdown is able to quickly fix the mechanism. Such devices do not require prophylaxis or special maintenance. Since it is difficult to service milking machines in Russia, pulsators of this type are widely distributed here.
Regulated and unregulated - which is better
An unequivocal answer to this question is difficult. On the one hand, a stable number of pulsations is better for a cow. When it changes, animals give less milk, and although this is a temporary phenomenon, it is undesirable. This is good pulsators with a constant or unregulated number of pulsations - stability.
Both domestic and foreign manufacturers often equip their cars with stable mechanisms. It adds value to them. For example, electromagnetic and pneumatic increase the price of the device by 1.5-2 times.
However, a cheap milking machine is not an option. Low-priced pneumatic pulsators periodically clog, which causes a change in the number of pulsations. We have to make adjustments manually, clean the mechanism. At the same time, stability is important not only for good milk yields, but also for the state of the whole machine, because it has important physical parameters, performance limits. They require a certain number of pulsations.
The clock frequency can be different: 70/30 or 50/50. The most popular devices with a frequency of 60/40, for example - PPD 2.00.000. To determine the ratio of cycles, use kimograph.
There is a point of view that the number of pulsations should be regulated, nevertheless, automatically or by an employee. Not bad devices of this type with electromagnetic pulsators are manufactured by England today.
With a domestic device with an unregulated pulsator, see the article "Milking machines" Farmer ".
Mechanisms of pair and simultaneous milking
Their name speaks for itself and depends on how the milking of different quarters of the udder occurs, either simultaneously or alternately.
At once we say that pair-type pulsators are better. There are several reasons for this. First, the mechanism of their work is closest to the natural production of milk, when the apparatus is connected first to the first two nipples, then to the second pair. It does not entail stress for the cow, provides its comfort and allows you to quickly accustom to the milking machine. Due to this, milk yield can increase by 20-30%.
Secondly, such devices sparingly affect the nipples and udder, do not provoke the development of mastitis, do not create injuries. Finally, they are more stable, easy to maintain and durable.
However, in Russia pulsators of synchronous milking are more common. This is due to their cheapness and the fact that milking machines manufactured in our country are “sharpened” precisely for this type of pulsator.
In addition, we have such units that work without any pulsators at all, read about this model in the article "Milking machines" Doyushka ".
Piston type mechanisms
The device of a piston pulsator can be compared with a steam engine in miniature. The piston moves in the cylinder left-right under the action of atmospheric pressure and vacuum. Due to this, the pipe is in contact with the air, then with a vacuum. Due to this pressure change, milking occurs.
Although the mechanism has been known for a very long time and is very massive, which makes it inconvenient, some companies still produce it. You can bring a product company "Simplex". This is an advanced model. It has a two-stage cylinder with two pistons. True, it is suitable only for simultaneous milking.
The lack of piston pulsators in their sensitivity. They need regular lubrication, and the pulsation frequency is easily disturbed by simple temperature drops or water ingress into the mechanism. For this reason, they are not particularly common.
Features of membrane devices
A membrane pulsator can be installed in the milking machine. It does not have such flaws as the piston, since the principle of operation is different.
Vacuum and atmospheric pressure are also used here as a “driving force”, but, roughly speaking, the membrane acts as a piston. Driven by the pressure difference, it moves the stem, which has two valves, up and down.
There may be differences in the design of membrane devices, but the principle is one. This mechanism is used in such machines as "Volga", YES-3M, YES-3, "Maiga".
There are dual pulsators for alternate milking, working in a similar pattern, only there are two nozzles instead of one. The number of pulsations can be adjusted manually. Two-membrane with a spool are also known, but they have no advantages over standard ones. In addition, they have a pendulum. This makes them too large for use in milking machines.
Electromagnetic Mechanisms Using Current
Electromagnetic pulsators are also popular for milking machines. They use both direct and alternating current with a voltage of 12 volts. There is a small rod made of ferromagnetic alloy. Its purpose is to block the hole in the center while current is flowing through the winding. Then the access of air to the chamber located under the electromagnet is stopped. It connects with the vacuum, and then comes the tact of sucking.
When electricity is turned off, the reverse occurs. To turn off the current circuit breaker is used. Such devices are pneumatic, as well as electronic or mechanical. To use this pulsator, you need a transformer that will lower the voltage to the desired 12 volts.
Milking machines with an electromagnetic pulsator are more expensive than analogs that do not have a main pulsator. However, they cost less than two-pipe milking machines, in which there is a main pulsator. Such a mechanism may be located on the lid of the milking bucket. Milking is done in pairs.
The simplest - ball devices
They are used in devices, where each glass has its own pulsator. The device is extremely simple. In the cylinder are two balls - small and large. When a vacuum is formed, they rise, letting in air, and then fall. Atmospheric air is again sucked through the hole, and at this time the tact of sucking on the glasses for milking takes place.
The lack of ball (pneumatic) pulsators is that the number of pulsations can vary from different effects: the slightest deviation of the teat Cup, the speed of milking, even the magnitude of the vacuum.
Such pulsators are installed, for example, in the “Dana”, “Moment”, “Welles” machines. Although they have an extremely simple design, the need to disassemble and wash them often makes them very uncomfortable in practice.
Sometimes pneumatic pulsators are placed directly under the teat cups. If you connect the device with the collector, you can do with one pulsator, and not put four. However, such a mechanism needs frequent debugging, and it is very difficult to carry it out with this design.
Most popular models and prices
The milking machine can be equipped with different pulsators. Their cost is significantly different. So, the cheapest pneumatic parts for simultaneous milking DD 4101 and DD 4-1 cost 130 rubles and 170 rubles, respectively.
Pneumatic devices of paired milking and membrane are more expensive: from 900 rubles and more. These are, for example, PPD 2.00.000 pulsators, Master LT80 AIR, LL90, L80, UNIPULS-2 and others. The last most expensive, costs almost 17 thousand rubles.
Electronic pulsators are more complicated, so their price starts from 3 thousand rubles. Among them are CV30, INVERSA 24B, L-02 and others.
At the Russian enterprises they prefer to use pneumatic, membrane pulsators and inexpensive electronic ones. The first, as we have said, has an undeniable advantage - easy repair.
How to assemble and repair the device
Let's tell on the example of a standard membrane pulsator. If he has become humbug, you need to disconnect the camera by unscrewing the nut on the pulsator. Then take out the rubber ring and plastic too. You can see a blockage here. If it is, clean the parts.
After take out the membrane. Pay attention to how it looks. No defects are allowed: neither stretching nor tearing. Its holes should exactly match the channel located in the pulsator directly below it. The channel also needs to be checked for contamination. Diffuser and valve take out. We clean the channel. When parsing, evaluate whether the parts fit snugly together.
Now collect the pulsator. First, insert the rubber ring into the body, then attach the diffuser valve to the washer. The smaller side should be on the bottom. Take the membrane so that the side looked inward, combine both holes. Set on top of the ring, made of plastic.
The rubber ring is well clamped by the camera and screw the nut into place. Everything, it is possible to use the milking machine further.
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