Severe Aujeszky's disease in pigs often ends in the death of animals. It is especially dangerous for newborn piglets. Insidiousness of infection is that cats, rodents, birds, that is, frequent guests on farms can cause an outbreak. The only plus, if I may say so, is that Aujeszky's disease occurs within the same farm. How to recognize the disease, protect yourself from it and cure the sick individuals, we tell below.
The first case of infection and its pathogen
This disease has several names. It is called false rabies, pseudo-madness, itchy plague, rabid scabies, and infectious bulbar paralysis. It was first recorded in Hungary in 1902. This was done by the person whose disease is named, the bacteriologist Aladar Aujeszky. Over time, the virus has spread almost worldwide. Sick different animals, not just pigs.
The virus that causes the disease belongs to the herpesvirus family and is quite resistant. Two weeks can live in manure, water, feed, planks, or porcine stubble. Under direct sunlight - up to 6 hours, in scattered light - up to 20.
In fodder and household premises, it lasts the longest in late summer-early autumn - up to 60 days. In frost from -8 and below survives more than a hundred days. Even with biothermal disinfection of manure, Aujeszky's disease virus is active for 1-2 weeks.
Relatively quickly, the virus is killed by formaldehyde, caustic soda, svezhegashvenoy and bleach. Under their influence, the pathogen can survive 5-20 minutes. But boiling is most effective, it neutralizes it in less than a minute.
Where does infection come from and how
On farms, the main sources of Aujeszky's virus are rodents, as well as cats and dogs. Often the infection mechanism looks like this: rats or mice die, animals eat their corpses, becoming infected. Cats and dogs catch rodents and get a virus from them.
Also, the death of sick dogs and cats is often the beginning of enzootic. They release a large number of viruses into the environment, or their corpses can be eaten by pigs.
Another method of infection is transmission of the virus with secretions of infectious animals. The contact of sick and healthy pigs is especially dangerous if the latter has damage to the skin and mucous membranes. Small piglets are most often infected by getting a virus with milk from sows.
A carrier pig can be a source of pathogen for a very long time - from 10 to 12 months. Strong risk in those farms where they do not worry about proper disposal of waste after slaughter. This entails the emergence of foci of disease and its spread through carnivorous animals and wild birds. In addition, Aujeszky's virus can carry fleas, ticks, lice.
As for the danger to humans, infections have been recorded, but there have been no deaths. In general, people are almost not susceptible to this virus.
Pathological changes in the body of sick animals
Usually the spread of the virus in the body begins with its penetration into the mucous membranes. Once in the bronchi or oral cavity, the pathogen multiplies rapidly, and then spreads with lymph throughout the body of the animal. Since the concentration of the virus is high, blood poisoning begins in sick pigs and the metabolism is disturbed.
The pathogen can enter the brain, then there are signs of severe encephalitis, disturbances in the nervous system.
In the organs responsible for the protection of the body - in the spleen, liver, tonsils - there are areas of dead tissue. Sometimes at autopsy, the same phenomenon is found in the lungs, kidneys and lymph nodes of dead animals.
Extremely dangerous disease for pregnant sows. The virus easily overcomes the placental barrier, getting into the fetus with a blood stream. As a result, an abortion occurs, or piglets are born dead.
If the virus enters through the skin, it multiplies rapidly in the place where it penetrated the body. Animals begin to itch so strong that they can comb the affected area almost to the bone. In pigs, this symptom does not happen.
Features of infection in piglets and forms of the disease
The disease is not uniform in individuals of different ages. There are also several types of ailments, differing in symptoms and severity:
- big shape;
- epileptic (also called encephalitis);
- gastrointestinal form;
- mixed form.
The disease begins and proceeds acutely, and in any form. Worst of all piglets younger than 10 days. They immediately become infected with blood, a high, over 41 degrees, temperature rises. They can not suck milk, make sounds (due to spasm of the larynx), do not move. There is profuse drooling. Such piglets usually do not survive longer than 4-12 hours from the appearance of the first symptoms.
Older animals suffer primarily the central nervous system. It all starts with lethargy, drowsiness, high fever, then the disease is gaining momentum. CNS infection with the virus is manifested by seizures with signs of epilepsy: there are convulsions, copious saliva, foam from the mouth, animals gnash their teeth, but lose their ability to squeal. By the way, there are similar symptoms in other pathologies, which you can find in the article "Why pigs grit their teeth."
Surviving piglets acquire serious defects, lose their physical usefulness. They can neither be fattened nor used for reproduction.
Oglomopodobny, gastrointestinal, mixed forms
Aujeszky's disease of pigs with an oglum-like form is characterized by the fact that the pig falls into a complete stupor. Can sit for a few hours, buried in the ground or in the wall. Paralysis, paresis of the limbs, especially the fore, frequent satellites of this form of the disease. The animal cannot move, its paws bend, and it freezes, resting on the ground with its wrists. If the pig walks, it is very uncertain, staggering, trying to pull the legs to the stomach. An unnatural position of the head may be observed. The action of the virus causes further pulmonary edema. The animal dies in 2-3 days.
Gastrointestinal form occurs in weaners and suckers. It is also characterized by high fever, but the animal also ceases to eat, it constantly vomits, and abundant bloody diarrhea sometimes begins. A pig infected with a virus dies very quickly.
In the mixed form of the disease after abnormal excitation of the animal, a sharp decline in activity occurs. Sometimes Aujeszky in piglets is less acute and lasts from two days to two weeks. During this period, a virus infected individual suffers exhaustion, loss of appetite, constant drowsiness. It happens that cough is connected to these symptoms.
Epileptic and influenza-like forms
Suddenly and severely, the epileptic form of the disease begins. The piglet, half an hour ago, who seemed healthy, suddenly begins to behave violently, rush forward, ignoring any obstacles, even the walls - trying to climb along the wall. There are convulsions, the spine is bent because of muscle spasms, the animal sees poorly. Although scabies in pigs is not observed, in this form, piglets are extremely painful to tolerate touching the skin. They can also fall and drive their paws in the air, at the same time a runny nose and watery eyes appear. Attacks of violence are repeated. At first they are infrequent, but their number is growing rapidly, depleting the strength of the animal.
The only form of the disease in which the virus does not affect the central nervous system is an influenza-like. However, it is no less dangerous. She has all the signs of a respiratory infection: nasal discharge, sneezing, cough, fever. However, this quickly develops pneumonia, the pig dies after 24 or 48 hours.
The course of infection in adult animals and gilts
Unlike piglets, adult pigs tolerate the disease fairly easily. They have no symptoms of central nervous system damage, only respiratory with fever: runny nose, conjunctivitis, coughing and sneezing. Sick animals from 3 to 14 days.
Vulnerable to sow virus. If a pig is pregnant, miscarriage happens. Born piglets are dead. In lactating sows, milk is lost, or its amount is greatly reduced. However, the latter is not important in this case, because the sick female has usually infected children, which means that they are lost for the farmer.
Adolescent piglets, or gilt, often develop gastrointestinal form and pneumonia as a complication of Aujeszky's disease. In addition, they may be exposed to the central nervous system. Cases with a lesion of the central nervous system among the gilt make up to 10%. The forecast is unfavorable - animals, as a rule, die.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease, the overall prognosis
Most of the sick animals die, especially if they have not been vaccinated against the virus. The diagnosis is made according to the results of laboratory research and analysis of the epizootic situation. Under the latter refers to the definition of sources of infection, assessment of the sanitary and hygienic state of the economy and risk factors. When making a diagnosis exclude other ailments with similar symptoms on the basis of tests, therefore the participation of the veterinarian is necessary.
There are no drugs directly from Aujeszky's disease, as well as generally effective treatment, symptomatic therapy is used. Also pigs are given medicines that support the body and immunity.
So, when the first symptoms appear, it is useful to immediately inject the animal with hyperimmune serum, gamma globulin - this will help fight the virus. Chloral hydrate and any antibiotics are also given, only on a broad spectrum: ceftiosan, sulfetrisan, and others. They are pricked more to prevent the development of background bacterial infections in a weakened body. They are useless against the virus. Vitamins are introduced, injections of citrated blood or serum obtained from completely healthy pigs are not superfluous.
It is important to remember: the symptoms and treatment should not be ignored, all measures to combat the virus should be taken immediately, as soon as signs of illness are noticed.
Does Immunization Protect Your From Frenzy Scabies?
You can protect your animals from the pseudo-rabies virus by timely vaccinations. Serum, gamma globulin and a special vaccine are used.
Hyper-immune serum and gamma-globulin provide passive immunity: ready-made antibodies that fight the virus enter the body of pigs. The vaccine gives an active immunity: it contains neutralized viral particles and causes the body to independently produce protective cells.
Serum and gamma globulin inoculate young animals from two weeks, repeating the procedure first after 20 days, then after two months. Adult pigs are revaccinated every year.
There is also a VGNKI vaccine preventing Aujeszky's disease. If the pig farm is unfavorable for this ailment, the drug is administered to the piglets, starting from two days of age in the same way that gamma globulin is inoculated.
Pregnant sows injected the drug about a month before farrowing, if there is a threat of infection, it is possible for a week.
Also for pigs widely used vaccine BUK-628, it has long been well known. The effect of it and the above drugs begins 6 days after the injection, persists for up to one year in piglets, up to two years in adult pigs.
It is worth mentioning the vaccine called "Procilis Begonia". It acts less - six months, but safe, non-toxic. However, it can only prick healthy pigs.
On other immune means of various diseases, read the article "Vaccinations of pigs from birth."
How to protect your farm from the virus
Prevention is very important, because if at least one animal gets pseudo-madness, it will be almost impossible to curb the virus. Of course, a vaccine should always be used - on time and according to all the rules. Each litter should be immunized. There is a special veterinary instruction, operating since 1968, it describes in detail how to prevent infection of the population with the Aujeszky virus.
It is necessary to carry out all sanitary and hygienic measures on the farm in a timely manner; every month to organize a complete disinfection of the premises. Buy new animals by previewing documents about their state of health, vaccinations, epidokruzhenii. Keep newcomers in quarantine before admitting to the herd. If they or your animals have signs of illness, immediately isolate such pigs.
Since rodents spread the virus most often, they need to be fought. Do not allow extraneous animals to the farm.
Observe the sanitary requirements for the slaughter and disposal of the corpses of sick pigs. The bodies are usually sent to the pits of Beccari, or burned.
The farm where the outbreak of the virus was recorded remains in quarantine for a month. with favorable developments, all restrictions are removed from it in six months.
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Tell us in the comments if you had to deal with this pathology.