Modern prefabricated barns for cattle keeping are easy to build, thanks to the use of innovative technologies and high-strength building materials. They can be a regular barn, a typical livestock farm or a hangar, where there are several special areas for keeping and feeding animals, as well as a special maternity ward and a milking room.
Typical device room for keeping cows
Regardless of whether you are planning to build a barn for 200 heads or a mini-room for keeping several animals, you need to adhere to certain principles that will increase milk production and a rapid increase in muscle mass.
The correct device of the barn provides for the presence of:
- a convenient stall for an animal with equipped feeding trough, watering and channel for waste disposal;
- a separate room for storing food or a kitchen for cooking calves;
- special delivery zone, which contains pregnant cows;
- premises for storage of milk packaging and finished product;
- sites for walking animals in the cold;
- storage rooms for disinfectants;
- a utility room in which special equipment (including milking equipment) and work equipment can be stored;
- a special site where manure is stored before it is removed from the farm;
- switchboard, providing uninterrupted power transmission for operating milking and ventilation equipment, as well as other mechanization systems;
- office space for employees.
Square standards for cattle
At the construction stage, the farmer must immediately decide how many animals he plans to keep in the building under construction. It also requires deciding what type of content, tethered or loose, is preferred. This will determine the required area of the stall and auxiliary premises.
In the case of free housing for one milk cow or bull, a minimum of 6 square meters should be provided. m, and for the calf - 4-4.5 square meters. m of free space.
When keeping cows with calves, the free area per animal should be about 10 square meters. m, which will allow cattle to move and develop properly.
Depending on the type of construction, the height of the barn can reach 6 m, but should not be below 3.5 m, creating a large amount of indoor air necessary for the breathing of cows.
Features of buildings
Before the construction of the barn, you must select a place to install it. It should be a flat platform on which a small crib or a huge hangar for keeping a large number of animals can be placed.
If you plan to install a lightweight collapsible barn of corrugated pipes and plastic panels, then a strong foundation is not required. If construction of a shed from a wooden bar, brick, sandwich panels or foam concrete is planned, then a strong foundation with a depth of at least 0.6 m should be built.
The floor surface for the stall is recommended to lay tightly fitted boards. They will pass urine and bring it out, as well as maintain a constant comfortable temperature.
Stall maintenance of cattle provides for the mandatory presence of watering and feeding troughs. An inclined channel is also needed, through which waste products can be removed by gravity from the cattle.
It is imperative to provide for sufficient illumination of the room, for which it must have a large number of windows.
To maintain a normal microclimate in the barn and reduce humidity, natural or artificial ventilation is required.
Learn about the requirements for ventilation systems and methods for their independent arrangement can be in the article "About the ventilation of the barn."
Arrangement of barns for small farms
The cowshed for 10 heads (it is called the mini-cowshed) is the easiest way to build a timber or brick. Such a room will be warm and comfortable for animals.
A barn for 20 animals requires a larger area and placement of animals in two rows, which provides convenient access for milking and cleaning. To increase the level of illumination, experts recommend providing one window for each cow.
If you decide to make a barn for 50 heads of cattle, then you must make sure that there is a system for cleaning animal waste products. Manually this will be difficult.
Cowsheds of this size are considered compact and convenient to use, because in most cases they do not require the arrangement of a special ventilation system.
For medium and large livestock farms
Large producers of milk and meat use volumetric premises for animals. In most cases, they keep cows on a leash. At the same time, a personal stall of about 1.3 m by 2.1 m in size is assigned to one individual, 1 x 1.5 m for a calf, and 1.3 m by 2.4 m for a bull.
A barn for 100 heads in most cases has two double-rowed cattle, to whom milk lines are held for milking, as well as a separate maternity ward for the joint keeping of hotels and calves.
A cowshed with 200 heads can have two or three two-row cattlemen, or a three-row room. Separate housing for dairy cows and growing calves is also provided.
In the construction of barns for 100 and 200 heads, it is advisable to provide for the presence of truck scales for weighing animals and milk sent for sale. In a number of cases, it makes sense to equip a separate room for keeping seeding bulls.
For the construction of barns for such a number of animals, you can use foam concrete, sandwich panels or metal structures, constructing spacious hangars.
Cowsheds for industrial cycle enterprises
Modern barns for large livestock farms are built volumetric and spacious. This makes it possible to contain separately dairy, calving and calving cows, dairy and growing calves, raised for meat of animals, as well as bull-seers. Best of all, a hangar made of a profile pipe, covered with a special transparent plastic roofing material (light-aerating skates) is suitable for such purposes.
A cowshed for 400 heads of dairy cows is built taking into account the three-row placement of animals.
In most cases, these are cowhouses with tethered livestock, and this placement allows the use of special milk lines, through which bulk milk enters the room for acceptance. Quite often in such a hangar there is equipment for the separation of milk and the production of cream.
On most large industrial livestock farms, various products are made from milk, which can be packaged in specially built premises and sent for sale to the distribution network.
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