As practice shows, milking halls with loose housing of cattle are the most effective form. They are comfortable on all sides - cows receive comfortable milking boxes. Hosts need to hire three times fewer employees, and the consumer gets a fresh and high-quality product. But a lot depends on the right choice, so we will further analyze what types of halls exist, what are their technical characteristics and features.
Milking halls show the highest profitability in farms numbering over 100 heads and more. The introduction of such methods of milking on mini-farms is practiced. But it makes sense to take such equipment only if there is a prospect of increasing the livestock. If this is not foreseen, then a portable milking machine will be cheaper and more convenient. More information about such devices can be found in the article "Milking machines in the subsidiary farm."
Modern milking halls can be different in quadrature, power and other technical characteristics, but the milking equipment and the technology of servicing cows are the same everywhere.
For arranging the milking parlor, there are 3 mandatory and 2 desirable parameters:
- sufficient quadrature of the heated room;
- availability of uninterrupted power supply;
- availability of pressure water supply with pressure in the system from 2 bar;
- it is desirable that the room was equipped with sewage;
- It is desirable that in addition to cold water was also hot.
The principle is simple, in the hall of any type of cows give birth in batches. After that, they occupy separate boxes, and the staff washes them udder and connects the milking machines. At the end, the instruments disconnect and the animals exit.
As already mentioned, all milking halls have similar equipment. The so-called milk post dominates the system. Automated models require virtually no operator intervention.
But the price of such equipment is high, for example, a “Yolochka” type milking parlor with a capacity of 2x12 and full electronic equipment costs about 5 million rubles. And its budget analogue with manual control and a minimum of automation will cost half the price.
The rest of the milking parlor is of the same type. This includes the milking machines themselves, milk lines for transporting milk, and several vacuum pumps. As well as the milk receiver for collecting milk and self-cleaning system, which is connected to the water supply.
Additional options are water heaters, electronic meters and sensors for detecting diseases of the udder for cows during milking. A hall with such a set in the same "Christmas tree" 2x12 will already cost about 3.9 million rubles.
In general, there are 4 types of halls - "Herringbone", "Tandem", "Parallel" and "Carousel". And then we will tell you how these models differ.
Top of excellence
Modern milking hall "Carousel" can be called the height of perfection in the organization of the milking process in large livestock enterprises. The introduction of these complexes into operation began relatively recently. The equipment is designed for farms with the number of 1000 heads and above.
At the same time, about 30 cows can be milked at the Carousel, and the average complex’s throughput is about 100 cows per hour.
The model is not in vain is the name, because the cows in it are arranged in a circle. There are 2 schemes of milking halls "Carousel".
According to the first scheme, the cows are directed by muzzles to the center of the circle, and the staff is outside. On the second - the attendants are in the center, and animals stand back to the middle. For the cows themselves there is no big difference. But people are much more convenient to work when they are inside the circle.
In the "Carousel" there are practically no budget bundles. In any model by default includes all necessary for the effective use of cattle options. Unless, in advanced samples there are still feeding troughs and drinking bowls, but their necessity is doubtful.
What is good "Tandem"
Regarding the shape of the room - just under the "Carousel" you need to build a round or square building. All other types of milking structures are arranged in rectangular halls, which makes it possible to redevelop buildings.
A comparison of the Tandem milking parlors with the aforementioned Carousel shows that they are the exact opposite. This scheme is designed for small herds, with a maximum of 200 milk heads. Adherents of "Tandem" argue that this is the most convenient model for cows.
Indeed, the cows here are parallel to the central rectangular pit, where the staff is located. And each cow has its own box with a separate entrance. This approach allows you to start and display animals individually, as they are issued. Plus, workers are much more convenient to wash and massage the udder.
But, on the other hand, the room should be quite large and the worker’s path from cow to cow does not take 70 cm, as in other types, but about 3 m. The market now offers 2 Tandem schemes - 2x5 and 2x6. In theory, the number of pairs can be increased, but there is not much point in this, since there are also milking rooms "Herringbone" and "Parallel".
In the farms that were built on the basis of the still Soviet cowsheds, the Yolochka milking parlor is very popular. Cows here are not parallel to the milking pit, as in a tandem, but at an angle to it. The angle can vary from 30 to 60 degrees. It all depends on the number of pairs and the wishes of the customer.
The developers claim that "Herringbone", like no other design, is easy to upgrade. As for the scheme, the model is happy here ranges from 2x4 to 2x16 heads. The largest production model of the “Fir Trees” is 2x24, although it is not recommended to do more than 2x16, because it takes a lot of time to enter and exit the party.
But the main advantage lies in the rational use of space. It is not always possible to build a wide hall. By placing the stall at an angle, you simultaneously save usable space and increase the number of milking sites.
Another important plus is the convenience of service. When cows stand at an angle, the worker can walk up to the cow at the side, which is much more convenient in terms of preparing the udder for milking. Of the minuses can be called the need to select the party with the same milking time.
Successful symbiosis of the two previous options can be called the milking parlor "Parallel". If you have a room with a width of 10-12 m, then structures of this type will be able to serve a dairy herd of up to 2000 heads. But it all depends on the number of milking pairs.
In "Parallels" cows stand perpendicular to the milking pit. With this arrangement, the operator, being in the center, can quickly serve the cows. On average, in 1 hour about 4.5 animals pass through 1 milking place.
The Europarallel milking rooms in this direction can be proud of. Their distinguishing feature is the personalization of work with each animal. Plus, this modification provides a modular connection. You can increase the number of milk places to infinity, and at the same time choose the optimal configuration.
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