In modern farms use specialized milking machine for cows. Today, manual milking of cattle is quite rare. Most often, this method is used in small barns. By automating the milk recovery process, you can increase farm productivity, save staff power, and prevent possible diseases of the udder of the animal. The use of milking devices can significantly improve the quality of the dairy products.
Device apparatus for milking cattle
The milking device allows extracting milk from the animal's udder, and then pipes it to a special container. Milking machines for dairy farms consist of the following elements:
- pump installation;
- milking container with a lid;
- milk and air pipes and hoses;
- 4 glasses for milking.
The most important element of the milking device are the glasses for milking. They are made from high-quality metal and two tubes are fed to them, one of which is necessary for sucking the milk product, and the other for forming the required vacuum in the pulsating chamber. The system consisting of 4 tanks, tubes, a collector is called a milking machine, because with its help milking is performed.
The principle of operation of milking equipment
Special devices imitate hand milking and calf feeding. It is important that this equipment has an optimal fit to the natural life processes according to the mode of operation and tactile sensations of the cows. In these cases, the maximum milk yield is reached, and the likelihood of mastitis in cattle is reduced.
A specialized vacuum unit is used for the operation of the milking unit, which creates a vacuum, which allows glasses to be placed on the nipples to receive milk. The change in pressure contributes to the fact that the device begins to slowly suck dairy product from the udder of the cow. After that, the milk enters the worn glasses and then - through a special tube in a bucket or can. After the procedure, the milk lines pump the liquid into the main tank.
Milking machines for dairy farms are distinguished by the number of cycles. Milking devices used in which pulsators provide automatic nipple compression and milk pumping are called two-stroke. In a three-stroke equipment, at the end of the compression process, air is directed into the spouting chamber, which creates atmospheric pressure in it without irritating the nipple. In this case, the dairy machine adapts to the physiological characteristics of cattle, performs alternate compression of different parts of the udder.
During the resulting pause, the blood supply to the nipples is restored, and they return to normal. Each method of milking animals is provided through the work of the collector and the pulsator.
Types of equipment for milking cattle
Despite the use of the same principle of operation, apparatuses for milking cows may be different. According to the degree of power, industrial, designed for the simultaneous milking of a large number of animals and equipped with an automatic control system, as well as domestic ones that adapt to cattle with any dimensions, are distinguished. On one dairy farm there can be simultaneously long-growing cows and those that are milked without much effort. Application for automated milking of a single mode is considered unacceptable.
Glasses for milking join to nipples at the same time or in pairs. Under the conditions of milking rooms, a personal machine is provided for each cattle individual, equipped with automatic milking and a device for washing the udder of animals. For details, see the article "About milking machines for halls."
About classification and motors
Applied for milking devices are classified:
- options for extracting dairy product from the udder of the animal (devices are divided into suction and squeezing);
- according to the principle of operation (the equipment can be two-, three-, four-stroke and permanent milk removal);
- on machine milking options (devices with simultaneous, twin and quarter milking);
- by the nature of the collection of dairy product.
Milk collecting units are either portable or suspended milking buckets. You can also collect the product through the milk line.
In the engine of the milking equipment, an oil motor can be used, which has low noise characteristics and does not frighten animals. Its negative qualities are possible leakage of oil, sensitivity to low temperature and frequent maintenance.
Also, dry action motors are used, which have a high level of noise and exhibit a special susceptibility to moisture - therefore, it is necessary to constantly monitor that the installation does not get liquid.
The milking robot is a special robotic device used both on small farms and in large economic complexes for automatic milking of cows, diagnostics and feeding of cattle. The optimal number of animals that can be serviced by 1 robot is, on average, 60-75 heads.
Such automatic devices are able to perfectly perform their work on livestock farms up to 600-800 cows. The modern unit in the process of milking conducts a lot of testing and records various data about each cow, identifies them by the sensor, which is attached to the ear of the animal. All the received data is accumulated by the automatic device into the information base, with the help of which it is possible to carry out detailed analytical processing.
Testing allows identifying various diseases in cattle at the earliest stages of their development. Milk robots can significantly reduce the cost of dairy product production on farms.
The main disadvantages of the milking machine are the high purchase price, the need to install grid floors, backup power supply and periodic maintenance from highly qualified specialists.
The main advantages of working with the milking device
Farms, where the manual version of milking animals is used, have constant problems with pollution and a high content of harmful microorganisms in the dairy product. This is due to the non-sterile process of milking cattle and the possible entry into the container of dust from the abdomen of a cow, litter particles.
When using a milking machine on a dairy farm, you can get cleaner milk than with a manual milking method. The results of the surveys show a decrease in contamination in the product, so it increases the shelf life.
Machine milking with high accuracy mimics calf sucking, which allows the animal to not experience any discomfort.
The use of an apparatus for milking cows has a positive effect on cattle, while the rate of milk flow increases significantly and the udder of the animal is emptied faster. Apparatus milking makes it possible to reduce the burden on farm personnel and save the farmer’s finances. After the barns switch to machine milking, veterinarians report a lower incidence of animal mastitis.
The unit used for two individuals
The milking machine for 2 cows is designed for milking two cattle at the same time. A modern device is able to serve up to 24 animals within an hour. Such equipment makes it possible to complete the mechanization of the process of milking cows.
The devices are used for year-round milking of cattle in the farm with stall and tethered content. The distance between the animals while milking is two meters.
These milking machines for the dairy farm are made with a dry-type vacuum unit capable of creating a maximum pressure of 0.06 MP. The power of the motor equipment for milking is 0.75 kW. For the collection of milk used food tanks with a capacity of 20 liters each, made of durable aluminum.
Efficiency and power matter
Maintenance of these devices during milking is carried out with the help of one or two operators. Due to its low weight and trolley, the milking unit moves quite easily.
When choosing equipment for milking cows, pay attention to the value of efficiency, power and type of electric motor, the performance of vacuum systems, the duration of the warranty period. In the article "Types of milking machines: which one is better," you can read more about this topic.
Optimally selected apparatus with excellent technical characteristics will allow the farmer to significantly save their finances and increase the milk yield from one cow to 10-15%. Milking devices in small subsidiary farms allow you to organize your own, so-called "dairies" and produce cheese, butter, sour cream, and whey on it.
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