It is believed that a well-prepared farm project guarantees 30-40% of the success of the future enterprise. And this is true, because even with powerful funding, mediocre planning "eats" the entire budget. Plus, then the owners, and the cows themselves, will be constantly tormented. Businesses are different in the number of cattle and profile. But there are general laws of planning. And then we will analyze the main points in the design of farms for cattle.
Recovery of old farms
Since Soviet times, quite a lot of old livestock farms have remained in our country, which are currently not operating. Naturally, the first thing that comes to mind to a normal farmer is to restore what is already there. This is partly correct, because those projects of cattle farms were developed in specialized research institutes and there can be no complaints about them.
But in this topic there are many "pitfalls". Let's start with the fact that in the old days flourishing of megalomania, and farms were often built on the basis of 1000 heads or more. While now breeders mostly start with projects for a maximum of 100 goals. And to cut off pieces from huge hangars is not profitable.
The second point is the condition of the old buildings. If you see cracks in the walls, it means that the foundation has sunk and is no longer suitable. You will repair such a cowshed every year. The presence of communications is also important. In the dashing 90s they were taken away in the first place.
We conclude that it makes sense to restore the old farm if someone watched the premises and they needed a minor, partly, redecoration. Otherwise, it is cheaper to build a new frame cowshed than to restore an abandoned one.
The best way out for the farmer is to order or simply find on the net a ready-made standard project for a commodity-meat or dairy farm. This approach immediately saves you from the mass of various nuances. After all, if you like the farm, it does not mean that the veterinary service, SES and firefighters will like it.
But keep in mind that a project downloaded from the Internet may contain serious errors. And if you order the documentation from the professionals - this is their "headache." True, the moments of responsibility of the parties must be carefully written in the contract.
In addition, when looking for a project, you must clearly understand what you will do in your farm. The least problematic in terms of budget size and payback are considered to be meat bull-breeding farms. The meat and dairy direction is the most profitable, but it is also the most problematic. Pure milk production occupies a middle ground.
When building from scratch, choose modular projects, so you can really start from a farm with 50 heads and, if necessary, expand it, for example, to 1000 heads.
Choosing a place away from noise
It doesn’t matter if you build a barn with 50 heads or 100. As practice shows, about half of the breeders make serious mistakes at the stage of choosing the right place. Believe me, even a perfect farm plan will not meet the breeder’s hopes if the farm is built in the wrong place.
The first and almost the most important rule says that it is impossible to build a farm for cattle near noisy enterprises and motorways.
Absolutely all cattle have a fine nervous organization and are very shy. Whatever profile you choose, animals will not gain weight, it will be good to milk and give birth to healthy offspring in a state of constant stress.
It is also undesirable to build similar structures near the marshes. There, the cows are guaranteed permanent illness and poisoning.
It is impossible to build a barn closer than 100 m from the border of the settlement. Sooner or later, villagers can get bored with the smells of animals, and then through the courts they can achieve the transfer of the economy.
The boundary of the farm should be no closer than 50 m from any natural water intake or reservoir. This refers to the wells, rivers and lakes.
The mini-farm is an economy with number from 10 to 100 heads. Such enterprises are good because the design of farms does not require significant capital investment. Plus in such an economy, most of the errors in the design can be corrected with "little blood".
It is important to immediately determine the number of goals. The fact is that the layout of premises for mini-farms numbering up to 50 cows is quite different from the layout of the main premises in barns numbering more than 50 heads.
So, in small farms it is not profitable to build a separate room for the milking parlor. It is quite enough to buy several portable milking machines and handle them.
According to the rules, for any layout of the complex, the height of the walls should be at least 2.5 m. But at the same time, the roof is made of a gable with a height of 3.7 m in the ridge. 20 cu. m space. If the room is smaller, you will have to plan artificial ventilation.
Medium and large farms
With the right approach, planning a farm for 100 heads is not much different from planning for 500, 1000 and more cows. If you do not take into account individual, exclusive orders, then absolutely all projects of farms are now of modular type.
As a rule, a complete starting module is initially developed, in which 50 cows are placed in the same row. After that, the scheme can be enlarged to infinity. That is, you need a barn for 200 heads, which means that you are completing 3 additional modules of 50 heads each and starting to work. The following components are included in the minimum configuration of medium and large enterprises:
- cow shed with winter stalls;
- covered pavilion for walking;
- a separate pen, and preferably a separate room for giving birth to cows with calves;
- milking parlor with the possibility of increasing milk places;
- silage pits, hayloft and storage for animal feed with the possibility of preparing mixtures;
- sector for the collection and disposal of manure;
- milk storage with refrigeration equipment;
- the boiler room should be built separately; there you can also place the pump room, the shower and the sector for the personnel.
At the price and speed of erection, cowsheds of frame type made of sandwich panels now lead.
When designing any farm, you should always consider the issue of profitability. So if you decide to engage in purely meat direction, then you should initially plan a nearby slaughterhouse. If you donate bulls with a live weight to a meat processing plant, you will not earn much. At best, pay back the cost of maintenance.
With the dairy direction, the situation is approximately the same. Dairies take goods at wholesale prices, and this approach can be beneficial only for a farm with 500 milk heads. Therefore, it is better to immediately plan a room with equipment for storing and processing milk on site. You can start with the production of cottage cheese and sour cream, the equipment for them is relatively inexpensive. In the future, go to the butter, yogurt and cheese.
To save on drawing up a competent project means to doom your livestock business in advance to a miserable stalemate. Therefore, the ideal option would be to order a modular project from professionals.
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