In rural areas, the construction of cowsheds is now gaining serious momentum. The people realized that it was profitable and began to build farms in large quantities. But the construction of such structures requires skills. Imagine only one barn project for 200 heads takes about 100 sheets. There are many options and retelling them all is unrealistic, so we will tell you how to build in successful farms, what points you should pay attention to and how realistic it is to build a barn at home.
The general concept of the barn
Immediately, we will discuss more about how to build a barn with your own hands. If you are interested in a relatively small multi-purpose building, which includes a stable, and is also suitable for a small cowshed, a pigsty, and part of the house, then we recommend viewing the article "A Barn for the Livestock."
Both a barn for 50 animals and a barn for 200 animals consist of approximately the same technological premises. The only difference is in their size and storage volume. The calculation, of course, is done personally, but any project has the following nodes:
- a stall room where the cattle is actually kept;
- summer paddock for loose housing;
- delivery room with delivery room and cow pens with calves;
- in some farms there is a separate milking parlor, but this is not necessary;
- compound feed, with a kitchen for steaming mixtures;
- room for milk storage and disinfection of milking equipment;
- a separate room or tank to collect manure;
- boiler room, which is often also a storage room for inventory.
Requirements for facilities
Any normal owner wants to ensure the comfort of his cows, but how to make this cow paradise, and even so not to spend much money? There are two different views on this problem. The design of the barns on the western model provides up to 8 square meters. m per cow with a ceiling height of 2.5 m. The idea is that the animal accounted for 20 square meters. m rooms.
Our cows were lucky a little more, for them in small barns, up to 30 heads, it is proposed to leave to the cows about 15 square meters. m for calf up to 8 square meters. m, and under the content of the bull is given 12 square meters. m. But this calculation is correct, if the cows are held without a leash. In the barn for a tethered barn, the cow stall is 1.25 m wide and about 3 m long.
In this situation, the construction of a barn for 200 animals requires about 1200-1500 square meters. m. You need to understand that this is the total area of the room, in addition to the place for the cows there will be more paths, feeders, manure discharge and so on. The barn square for 50 animals varies between 300 and 500 square meters. The barn for 100 heads will require up to 1000 square meters. m
For medium farms, a barn plan for 200 heads is considered the most convenient, as it is 4-row with convenient approaches.
The most reasonable solution for the farmer is to take a typical barn project. That is what has already been developed, tested and approved by professionals. Such projects are not limited to drawings, there is a complete calculation of the load on each node. In typical buildings, the size of the barns are tied to the number of heads.
Gradation is approximately as follows. For drawing up the barn for 200 heads, similar barn drawings for 100 heads are taken as the basis, only everything doubles. Calculation of small buildings "tied" to 10 heads. So a barn for 10 heads and a barn for 20 heads differ only in the number of rows and the volume of storage, they are constructively identical. The same applies to buildings for 30 and 40 heads.
And now, for structures with 50 heads, the project is done according to the patterns of large premises. Not without reason, barns for 200 cows have 4 rows of 50 animals each. Taking a model project, you protect yourself from regulatory authorities.
If you are buying a standard project, you do not need to make radical changes to it, as controlling officials, for example, firefighters or SES, may be asked for "gratitude" for your liberties.
What to build
For the construction of the barn with their own hands now there are plenty of options. For this purpose, use a brick, wooden beam or rounded log, blocks of porous concrete and sandwich panels. What you shouldn’t do is build with concrete blocks or slabs, as they are cold, and it is harmful for cows.
Some try to build walls of cob blocks (clay with straw). The material is warm, but short-lived and we do not recommend it. From the point of view of heat preservation, wood is the best option, but wood becomes wet and strongly absorbs odors, and in the barn this “good” is full.
The walls of porous concrete (foam and aerated concrete) must be well waterproofed, that is, plastered. Otherwise they will be saturated with moisture and the room will freeze.
Now popular installation of outlets of sandwich panels. Simply put, it is a heat insulation material, on which metal professional sheet is glued on both sides. Polyurethane foam, extruded polystyrene foam and mineral wool are used as insulation materials. We recommend taking the first 2 options. In fact, this is a designer, sandwich panels are mounted on the frame, and the installation of the structure takes a couple of weeks.
Foundation and floor
The type and size of the foundation depends on the wall material. Under the brick walls, reinforced concrete foundation is poured to a depth of 70 cm. The width of the monolith is made 50 mm more than the thickness of the walls. Under porous concrete and wooden boxes, lightweight strip-column foundations are usually made.
Under the frame structures, which include structures made of sandwich panels, only bearing beams are deeply concreted. But here you also can’t get away from serious concrete work. In theory, the best material for floors is wood, but in the barn even a thick wooden floor deteriorates in 3-4 years, so most of the owners fill all the same concrete.
Installation is simple - first, a sand-gravel pad 150-200 mm thick is poured in and rammed, onto which a concrete reinforced slab of about 100 mm thick is poured. But there is one trick. So that the concrete does not freeze and the cows do not hurt, a layer of extruded polystyrene foam is laid in the slab. For strength, you can not worry, these plates are used for insulation of airfield strips.
For a barn for 10 heads to carry out the calculation and build some daunting and expensive manure removal systems simply do not make much sense. With this work one cattle copes. It is enough for you to organize in the back part of the stall an inclined concrete chute and make floors in the stall with a slight bias. According to the rules, the slope in such places is about 20-30 mm per 1 running meter. The width of the gutter is best done across the width of the shovel.
Another question is how to build a manure removal system for farms from 20 heads. Installing one gutter will not save. Therefore, it uses a river or sectional scheme. With each row of manure and slurry scraper conveyor belt. Next, he is going to predlaguna.
On relatively small farms (up to 100 cows) from the predlaguna, it is immediately sent to the manure pit-sump. On large farms there is also the so-called lagoon (the main collection). Ripples from the entire farm flow into it, after which the screw conveyor pumps viscous masses and fecal pumps remove the slush. The slurry conveyor thus constructed ensures continuous cleaning and, accordingly, cleanliness in the room.
Reconstruction of old buildings
In many villages since the Soviet times there are old cowsheds. The reconstruction of the old-fashioned barns is a good idea, but it all depends on the condition of the premises. On the one hand, the farm is designed specifically for cattle and there can be no complaints about the barn scheme. And on the other hand, if the walls are adobe, it is cheaper to build a new one.
When we reconstruct the barn, you need to look primarily at the walls in the barn and the state of the manure pits. The entire roof, along with the truss system, will almost certainly have to be redone and insulated. Windows and doors are also changing. But the main thing is the equipment, milking machines, manure cleaning system and other installations will take the lion's share of the budget.
According to statistics, the share of reconstructed cattle farms of the Soviet type is about 30%. Then they built well, just for dozens of years of oblivion from the barns there is not much left and it is easier to build new ones.
Building a small barn with your own hands is a real thing and not so expensive. If the article was useful to you, share it with friends online. Perhaps one of them is just going to build a barn for themselves and your likes will help him.