Difficulties with how to choose a milking machine, will not arise if you are armed with knowledge on this topic. First you need to understand the principles on which his productive work is based. The best units imitate calf natural feeding as accurately as possible, so their use results in high milk yield. On the other hand, they prevent the development of mastitis and other diseases without causing unpleasant sensations in dairy cows.
The design and principle of operation of the apparatus
To understand the principles of operation of the unit for milking cows, you need to learn what this device consists of.
This device has teat cups that are put on each nipple, milk lines and air tubes, a container for collecting milk, a pulsator, a pump, a collector.
Creating a vacuum and high pressure is the principle of the milking machine. The pulsator and the collector play the main role in organizing the selection of milk, which from the nipples enters first into the glass, and then through special hoses into the portable containers.
The milking machine for cows worked until recently on the push-pull technology, which is characterized by compression of the nipple and pumping out of milk.
Features of the functioning of the two-stroke milking machine are characterized by the continuity of the process. This technology is not very comfortable for cows, because it does not take into account the physiology of animals.
Modern developments have led to the creation of a three-stroke unit, which has a "rest" mode. This allows you to restore the circulation of the teats of the udder in the pauses between milking. The animal is less tired, since such equipment simulates calf sucking.
Method of milking cows using special devices
According to the principle of operation, it is possible to distinguish release and suction devices for milking cattle. The operation of the vacuum pump is at the core of the operation of the suction device. The use of such equipment has the main advantage, which is expressed in more careful contact with the nipples.
Due to the operation of the pump inside the glasses, a pressure is created sucking the milk. When air is completely replaced by vacuum due to an increase in pressure, the nipples are squeezed and the milk supply stops.
The principle of operation of the squeezing apparatus is based on the production of milk by mechanical squeezing of the nipples. In this form, milking machines used in the work of vacuum and high pressure. This unit is quite noisy, but the animals quickly get used to it.
Milking devices can capture all the nipples at once, or alternately give milk from two at the same time. Variety of milking depends on the age of the female cattle. For example, the continuous method is more suitable for adults who have a process of milk production. For younger cows, it is better to use milking in two or three cycles.
Industrial and household appliances
Classification of milking machines can be carried out according to their productivity and dimensions. They can be mobile or stationary, which work reliably inside large cowsheds in stalls. They are used to get milk from several cows at the same time. Products come in a single large capacity bulk. Due to its high productivity, one group unit can successfully replace several individual devices.
Industrial devices have an automatic control function that provides an individual approach to each animal during the milking process, taking into account its physiological features.
For individual use in the home, small household units have been developed that allow milk to be produced in any conditions from one or two cows. They are suitable for any breeds of cattle, they are easy to carry. Such a device does not require special skills for maintenance, and it can be used in any conditions from pasture to stall.
Types of engines
To choose the right milking machine for a cow, which has individual physiological features and is contained under specific conditions, it is necessary to take into account its design features.
According to the type of engine, a dry or oil milking machine is distinguished. Motors of dry action are distinguished by increased environmental safety and ease of operation. The main disadvantages of this device is sensitivity to moisture, noise during operation. Under heavy load, they can overheat with high probability. During their storage, it is important to take care of protection against the ingress of liquid into the power unit.
Oil engines work reliably, smoothly and quietly. Their functioning does not bother animals during milking. On the other hand, they require constant monitoring of the oil level, regular maintenance. In addition, due to the solidification of the lubricant at low temperatures, problems may arise with the launch in the winter season. As the engine wears, the oil may start to leak.
Types of vacuum pumps in milking devices
In the milking unit one of the most important components is the vacuum pump. Depending on the model of the device, it can be of three types: diaphragm, piston, rotor.
The most budgetary option to complete the milking devices is a diaphragm pump, which is most suitable for use in a household or on a small dairy farm. It is recommended to use to get milk from 2-3 cows.
A more powerful pump of the piston type in the milking machine will improve the efficiency of the livestock farm. Its biggest drawback is the large size, noise during operation. In addition, these units are predisposed to rapid heating.
The best option for keeping animals calm before milking and in its process will be the use of the most versatile milking machines with a rotary pump, which can be of oil and dry type. These devices operate on push-pull technology or operate in three cycles.
How to choose a milking machine
To figure out which milking machine is better, you need to make an in-depth analysis of your financial capabilities, the physiological characteristics of dairy cows, the needs of a particular dairy farm. Choosing the optimal model of the unit for milking, you need to decide how easily a cow gives milk. Also consider the number of animals in the herd.
If the household has only one or two cows with a normal udder, then a continuous milking method can be used. The three-cycle milking machine is most suitable for use in a large herd. With its help it is easier to provide an individual approach to each dairy female of cattle, since this device simulates the calf's udder sucking.
Milk can be obtained in different conditions: inside the barn or on pasture, where the herd gains weight, and each cow enriches its body with useful substances. If the farmer plans to carry out milking on grazing, then it is necessary to provide the necessary equipment for the milking machine. It should be easy, mobile and have sufficient productivity.
To make the right choice between the oil and dry engine milking units, it is necessary to study in detail the features, advantages and disadvantages of each, and then correlate them with their own needs and operating conditions.
Rules of use of devices
Because of the noisiness of some models of milking devices, animals are better to train them in advance. After getting used to the cow, you can begin to use special equipment. If the female KRS never milked manually, then it is possible to begin milking using technical means immediately after her calving. Before this, you must carefully examine the animal. In the case when all the readings are good and the health of the cow doesn’t cause concern, you can proceed to the milk collection procedure.
Milking technology with the help of technical devices consists of the following points, which must be strictly followed:
- wash the udder thoroughly with warm water and dry it with a towel;
- clean hands to massage nipples and udder;
- check the health of the milking unit;
- set low pressure and put glasses on each nipple, providing a snug fit;
- during the milking process should increase the pressure;
- after completion of the process, probe the udder and, if necessary, manually milk the remaining milk;
- Finally, wipe the nipples and surrounding areas and smear them with Vaseline.
Thus, the correct use of the milking machine will greatly facilitate farm work and increase the efficiency of animal husbandry.
Purchase of a device for milking cattle
In the modern market the big range of the milking equipment is offered. The most widespread devices are made in Russia, Turkey, Ukraine because of the most reasonable prices. In addition, Italian appliances with the "Milk line" trademark have proven themselves well. A large price range from 15,000 to 30,000 rubles can satisfy the most demanding customers with different material capabilities.
For operation in the conditions of a home dairy farm, units are offered that are characterized by simplicity of design, easy replacement of important parts. In addition, such devices are easy to move.
The most profitable to purchase milking machines from official dealers or directly from manufacturers. In such cases, you can get a reliable guarantee, enter into an agreement on the service maintenance of equipment, and, if necessary, obtain original spare parts.
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