In the subsidiary farm barn for livestock is an integral part. Here there is everything necessary for keeping cattle - equipment, ventilation, windows. In this case, the structure should be located in the right place. An important role is played by materials for construction. Comfortable living will provide livestock with good health, good weight gain, large milk yield. The article discusses the rules for the construction of premises with their own hands, taking into account the basic requirements of the animals.
Cows and bulls must be kept clean, so the main condition - the barn is designed in such a way that it is convenient to clean. Also, the territory itself is chosen away from residential premises, wells, boreholes. The place should be dry, not blown by the winds. During the flood period, water should not flood the animal shed. If the area is located in a harsh climate zone, then you should consider a heating, lighting and ventilation system.
The advantage is given to environmentally friendly materials that have insulating properties and can last for a long time. It can be brick, wood, aerated concrete, foam blocks and other options that are suitable for the climate. The area of the future shed should be such that the cows can lie down, stand up and walk to the trough without any obstacles. When drawing up a plan for a cow shed with your own hands, you need to determine the number of places for which it will be calculated.
Very often in the barns do hayloft. This is a kind of attic, which stores hay, grain, feed. The presence of such a room under the roof provides additional thermal insulation.
The size of the building
To build a large barn is quite expensive, then how to build a barn for bulls and cows, even a novice farmer can. The room should not be too cramped, but not too spacious. An adult individual is 6 square meters. m. If she will be kept there with a calf, then the area should be increased to 10 square meters. m. An animal with such a room size will be comfortable.
Seats for each cow are divided by partitions that form a stall. In it, the animal should be muzzle to the trough and back to the sludge box. Accordingly, the floor must be built with a slope of 2-3%, so that waste products flow into this trough for manure. It is laid in the back of the stall. The collection for slurry can be 10 cm deep and 20 cm wide. If it is planned to keep cattle on litter, then the waste collection system is not made.
Standard stall length should be up to 260 cm, and in width up to 125 cm. These dimensions may vary depending on the type and size of the animal. If it is not too large, it is usually enough and 170 cm in length.
When in a barn the stalls are arranged along the walls in two rows, then between them there should be a passage from 120 cm to 150 cm. The height of the ceiling is not fundamental, but at least 250 cm is welcomed.
Start of construction
The project should as accurately reflect the concept of construction and the final result. Before the start of all work, you need to determine the place, taking into account the possible increase in livestock. You may also need some additional buildings for calves depending on which animals will prevail - meat or dairy.
The order of work is as follows:
- the foundation is laid;
- fits and settles the floor;
- barn walls are built;
- floors and roofs are built;
- barn is equipped with everything necessary.
First you need to mark the boundaries of the territory where you need to build a barn for cows in homestead farming. Ropes and pegs will help in this matter for a more even excavation of the trench under the foundation.
Fill the foundation
This work should be carried out in a particularly high quality, since the strength of the whole shed and its service life depend on this design. After the trench is dug, a cushion of rubble and sand is laid in it. Before pouring concrete it is necessary to make a formwork in the dug pits. Mixing the solution, bring it to the state of thick cream and pour into the prepared ditches. To strengthen the foundation, you can use reinforcement with a diameter of 8-10 mm. For high-quality solidification, cover the entire perimeter with roofing felt. This method is called monolithic.
If the building should not be too large and wooden, then you can make the foundation on the pillars. This design is more simple and inexpensive. It resembles the first option, but the difference is that the foundation pillars are placed in a form with reinforcement, which is insulated with roofing material. Then concrete is poured in there. These pillars are installed at intervals of not more than 2 m. The laying of a sand cushion also precedes the entire work.
Be sure to make waterproofing slope with a layer of sand and gravel on the outer edge.
In general, the simpler the structure, the easier it is to lay the foundation. It also depends on the composition of the soil. A suitable foundation is selected based on these parameters.
Walls and floor
Depending on the foundation, the material for the walls is also selected. If you plan to build a small barn for bulls and cows, you can choose a tree. For overall structures - it is quite expensive and not suitable for keeping cattle due to low durability. For medium buildings, you can use silicate brick or foam blocks.
When the walls of the barn for livestock are erected, they need to be insulated and not forget about the holes for ventilation. Ideally, the selected material, even if it is wood, can be laid in two layers. The distance between them is filled with insulation. You can choose foam, clay, glass wool, foam rubber. Sometimes in the construction of barns, on the basis of the plan, you can combine different materials - for example, brick and cinder.
When building a cattle shed with your own hands, the material for the floor can be different. For example, concrete is durable and easy to clean. However, it is rather cold and therefore wooden shields are laid on it. They should be removable for ease of cleaning. Clay floor keeps warm well. The coating of wood is not very practical, as it absorbs moisture, retains odors and wears out quickly. After some time, it will require replacement boards. Straw is placed on any surface.
The height of the floor from the ground should not be less than 15 cm. If a zhizhesbornik was included in the plan, then a slope of up to 3 cm by 1 m should be made. A waste tank is placed on the edge of the slope. With this option, stalling of stalls with straw is not required, since usually this technology is used on large farms. How to build a large barn will be described in the article "Building a barn."
The roof is the final element of the construction of a barn for bulls and cows. Based on the size of the building, it can be covered with slate. If you choose from more expensive materials, then fit metal. In regions with a warm climate, polycarbonate has proven itself well. This material provides additional lighting.
The roof also needs to be warmed. For this fit glass wool, which is laid on top of the log. Water flow can be provided by constructing the structure under the slope.
And now let's open a little secret how to make the roof even warmer. To do this, the top is simply built hayloft or attic. Their presence creates additional air space, which helps to keep warm. Sizes depend on how much feed or hay should fit there. If you make an attic height of 2.5-3 m, then quite a large haystack will fit there. Access to the hayloft can be done from the inside of the shed, then the feed to the animals is very easy. For the construction will need ordinary wooden boards and nails.
Windows are required
After the barn for cows is built, it will be equipped with all necessary equipment for the full maintenance of animals. For each individual, you can make a separate stall with the help of boards or metal pipes.
For full fattening you need to properly equip the feeders and drinkers. Animals must have free access to food. Tanks for food can also be made of wood. The surface needs to be trimmed so that it becomes smooth and the cattle does not hurt.
Synthetic troughs are also quite good. They are convenient to wash and disinfect. It is not advisable to place all containers for food and drink on the floor. It is best to fix them at a height of 7-10 cm.
Cattle must be kept at a positive temperature of 4 to 20 degrees Celsius. It is necessary to ensure a good flow of fresh air in the barn, but without drafts. Will help in this ventilation corridor. It is built of boards with a section of 15x15 cm, and then taken to the roof above the ridge. In stock must be weatherproof damper. In the barn you can not do without windows, as animals need light. 10 square meters. m is enough one window. Doors should not be through. It is desirable to equip the entrance for a man and a separate passage for livestock.
Other important nuances
In terms of how to build a barn for livestock, you need to provide a place for a calf. It is equipped separately from the places for adults. This may be a cage or a house in which it is much more convenient to look after the young. It is built of boards, about the height of a man. The floor in such a pen is covered with hay. Insulate additionally not necessary, since it is already in the barn.
In the barn for cows, disinfection must be carried out, since there all the conditions for the reproduction of pathogenic microflora are waste and liquid feed. Twice a year, the walls should be treated with lime, and feeders with wet food should be washed with lye - water extract of wood ash. All equipment is cleaned as it gets dirty.
In a shed without a zhizhesbornik need a bed of straw. It is not necessary to change it every day. You can just pour fresh, and it in the process of trampling forms a pillow on which the animal will be warmer during the cold season.
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