With the current shortage of jobs in the countryside, the construction of a dairy farm can be a good investment. But in order for such a farm to quickly pay for itself and start working as a plus, the farm for the cows needs to be built for at least 100 heads. The task, of course, is not the simplest, but quite solvable. And then we will go through the main stages of the development of an average livestock enterprise, starting with the selection of a site and ending with the intricacies of the sale of finished products.
Choosing a farm project
In general, the construction of farms can be divided into 3 directions. The first direction is represented by mini-farms. As a rule, these are family-type livestock farms. The number of cows in them does not exceed 100. On medium farms they keep from 100 to 500 heads. Anything more already refers to large livestock farms.
In this case, we are choosing the middle ground among cattle farms. As practice has shown, at the initial stage, dairy complexes with farms for 200 animals give the best profitability. In particular, the project of a four-row farm with automated cleaning and semi-automated milking is popular. But first, let's analyze the overall business plan:
- documents - for such animal husbandry, you need to open the IP;
- we select a plot for a farm and solve the issue of renting or buying land;
- choose a project - a farm for cows for 200 cows will require about 1000 square meters. m;
- you need to decide on the type of content - there is content without walking and with walking;
- we buy material, we hire people and we build a farm;
- we buy cows and we start production;
- solve the problem of the sales market;
- count the money.
If there is money, then the question of how to build a farm begins with the choice of a land plot for it. First of all, remember - cattle love silence. Regardless of the method of maintenance, the farm near the busy highway will not give profit. Cows are not able to get used to the noise, and if they are afraid, you will not see milk.
Naked steppe is also not the best option. In a nearby forest belt, animals can hide in the summer heat. A big plus would be the presence of a natural reservoir near the farm. Cows are highly respected water treatments. But do not try to build a farm right on the river or lake.
According to SES standards, such objects with a large number of fecal storages cannot be built closer than 50 m from a pond or natural water intake (well, spring). Otherwise, the authorities have the right to impose on the owner a serious fine and oblige him to transfer the object to another place.
Again, we need land for growing feed. By the way, it is advisable to buy a place for a farm. Given the growth prospects, 3-4 thousand square meters. m will be enough. But the forage grounds at first can be rented. And stay away from the swamps, their grass for cattle is very harmful.
Even before the construction of a farm for cattle, the issue of communications and infrastructure should be resolved. You need to start with access roads and energy supply. An unpaved road will not work, bringing feed and milk to the spring thaw will be very difficult. If there are no funds for asphalt, then it is possible to fill the primer while filling the waste blast-furnace slag, it will be 10 times cheaper.
As for power lines, it is advisable to put the farm near the main line, so you dig a dozen pillars and feed the farm separately. It is undesirable to spend time, energy consumption at an average farm is serious.
You should not focus on high-voltage power lines. Firstly, it is impossible to build near them, and secondly, in order to be powered from the high-voltage line, you need a separate transformer, which will cost you a lot of money.
The cow kingdom needs good drinking water. It is best to drill an artesian well and not depend on anyone. Moreover, it is necessary to drill the artesian well (it is deeper). A small (up to 50 m) well on the sand is not capable of providing such an enterprise with water.
What we build
There are firms that build turnkey farms. As a rule, we are talking about warmed hangars of sandwich panels. The base is concreted, the metal frame is put and everything is sheathed with panels. Such a designer is good because the farm can be expanded at any time, plus there is no complaint from the SES and firefighters. For money it costs about 30-40% more than if you hire people and manage the construction yourself.
In our case, a farm with your own hands is not real, too much work. In any case, people will have to be hired, another question is what to build from. Wood is a good thing, but it draws moisture on itself and, along with it, smells. Accordingly, for the barn is not suitable.
The walls of aerated concrete, foam concrete and shell rock must be thoroughly plastered, otherwise they will get wet. The brick is good, but it is expensive and the laying takes a lot of time. In the ratio of price-quality cinder block leads.
In the Russian climate, no matter what you decide to make a barn, you need to additionally insulate the walls and the best option would be to sheathe the building with extruded polystyrene foam (Penoplex or Technoplex) 50 mm thick.
Choose the type of content
As already mentioned, the maintenance of cows happens without walking and with walking. In the first case, the cows spend most of their time in the barn. They are only briefly taken to the summer pens for a walk. But even after giving birth, a Burenka is with a calf for a couple of weeks. But such cows often get sick and feed for them more expensive.
With walking or loose housing content closer to natural conditions. In fact, on a farm, a cow is only in winter and in the cold season. The rest of the life of the cows goes to pasture. Such cows are stronger and more stable in terms of stress, and most importantly they need less expensive feed and all sorts of additives. The lion's share of vitamins and minerals they get in the meadow.
The choice of one or another type of content is personal. We only note that for loose content you need more space. A cow needs about 15-20 square meters. m, and if it is with a calf, then add another 8 square meters. m, plus feeding grounds.
A barn with separate stalls for keeping a leash is less quadrature, but it will definitely have to be equipped with all the necessary automation. This is especially true of the manure and milking equipment, and the cost of the project will increase accordingly.
On medium and large farms, manure disposal is a rather serious "headache." One adult high milk cow per day produces up to 45 kg of manure and up to 25 liters of urine. It is necessary to clean it at least 2 times a day. When there are more than 100 heads on a farm, you can forget about cleaning by hand immediately. During the construction you will have to provide sectoral drainage system.
Such a system provides for the arrangement of the gutter behind each row of cows. Then these troughs are connected in the predlagun and with the help of various kinds of pumps, the manure is sent to a separate storage. A separate scraper system is also mounted to move manure through the gutters. The floor in the stalls and the gutters are made with a slope, the optimum slope for sewer systems of any type is 2-3 cm at 1 m / p.
Primary slurry storage should contain a minimum of three days of waste. Further, the “product” is sent either to the manure septic tank, or you can enter into a contract with fertilizer producers. Do not try to export fresh manure to the fields, you will burn plants. Fertilizer manure will be only after 3 years, when perepreet.
Sales of products
A well-battered cow gives from 10 to 15 liters of milk per day. There are record holders who have milk yield up to 25 liters per day. If we proceed from the fact that the average farm initially contains about 200 heads, then it turns out that every day you need somewhere to put more than 2 tons of milk.
Dairy enterprises will take it with pleasure and even bring their own milk tankers to you, but in this way you will lose a substantial profit. It is much more profitable to rent or buy a food tank truck and take part of the goods to the market every day. So you will soon have working capital and you can already buy equipment, for example, a cheese factory and organize a company with a full cycle.
Do not forget about calves and retired animals. For a cow to be milked, she must give birth to a calf every year. You will keep some of the newborn cows for yourself, and sell the rest. As for retired animals, they will be taken away from meats.
It is now profitable to invest money in animal husbandry, but you shouldn’t grasp at the construction of mega enterprises right away. Start with an average farm, and when you put your hand, you can always expand it. We hope that the information was useful to you. Share it with your friends and let your like help someone decide on a new business direction.