At the time of sanctions and counter-sanctions, the topic of import substitution is constantly heard from television screens, and many energetic and enterprising people this leads to cattle livestock breeding. The state allocates hectares of land in the Far East, which also pushes for doing business in agriculture. This article is dedicated to farming. We will tell you what areas there are farms, what nuances should be taken into account when starting a livestock business.
Varieties of livestock farms
There are various classifications of livestock farms: depending on the size, by the type of animals raised, by goals, by the completion of the production cycle. Let us examine in more detail each section.
The classification of farms by type of farmed animals is as follows:
- pig farms
- sheep breeding
- cattle farms,
- poultry farms
- fur farms.
Depending on the goals that people pursue in animal husbandry, they distinguish breeding and commodity farms.
Tribal specialize in creating new breeds of livestock (poultry) or on improving the quality of productivity of existing ones. So, relevant for breeding bull breeding.
Commercial farms produce what is directly consumed by the population. They are divided into the following subspecies: dairy, meat, fattening for cattle, mixed, egg (in poultry farming).
Nuances of production
Each of the varieties of farms has its own specifics.
Thus, when organizing a dairy farm, it is necessary to provide for the possibility of placing the milking equipment and a separate room in which milking will be carried out. It is mandatory that the farm should have equipment for cooling the product to ensure its safety. Detailed analysis of the nuances of milk production will help article "On dairy farms."
A farm with a complete production cycle produces products of a certain type or specializes in a separate stage from the entire technological process (fattening of gobies, reproduction).
The livestock complex is a large specialized enterprise for the production of meat, milk and eggs. All of the above classifications apply to complexes.
Preparatory stage of creation
In such a direction as livestock cows occupy a special place.
After making a decision in principle to open your own farm, you have a lot of work to prepare for this type of activity.
The first step to livestock will be a business plan. Its development is an important stage. It is necessary to reflect in it:
- business activity;
- estimated livestock numbers;
- areas where the farm will be located;
- availability of communications;
- source of financing;
- payback period and profitability.
Possible sources of financing
Keeping cows is a costly area of activity; in order to start it, investments are needed. The most optimal is the availability of own funds necessary for investing in livestock cattle.
The most frequent obstacle to the creation of a farm is the lack of available financial resources. But this problem is solved.
If you do not have your own savings, then you can use a bank loan to build a cow farm.
There will have to find out the terms of lending in different organizations to choose the most optimal and profitable option. But we must remember that banks require the provision of a refund. Not only land, real estate or equipment, but even cattle are often taken as collateral.
Another way to receive money is government support, which has various forms: grants, co-financing, subsidies. In order to find out what methods of state support you can count on in creating a cattle-breeding complex, you must contact the Department of Agriculture of the Russian Federation for the relevant information.
Modern cattle breeding is hard to imagine without exact numbers. When organizing a barn, you need to remember clear parameters of the area, temperature, humidity, permissible concentration of harmful gases, which will have to be maintained during the work.
When designing a livestock farm, the documentation should reflect the following room parameters:
- temperature range + 5 + 20 degrees;
- air humidity 50-80%;
- permissible carbon dioxide content is 0.25%.
If the barn does not maintain these parameters, then the development of various diseases in animals and a decrease in productivity is possible. Low temperatures and high humidity in the cold season lead to catarrhal diseases, high temperatures and excessively dry air in summer lead to overheating of animals.
In order to comply with the microclimatic indicators in the farm there must be the necessary control devices, as well as a well-adjusted ventilation system, which can be natural or forced.
In the project documents should be taken into account that for a single individual cattle requires at least 6 square meters. m, and if it will contain a cow and calf - at least 10 square meters. m. Thus, if the family livestock farm plans to keep a herd of 50 animals, then the size of the room should be about 500 square meters. m
The permissible wall height is 2.5–3 m, the height to the ridge of the roof is at least 3.5 m. At the same time, it must be taken into account that the roof should be insulated.
It is mandatory to provide for slurry drains on a cow farm. For this, the floor is made with a slope of about 2 cm / m, and special gutters are laid, which are removed from the barn. The floor can be mud with rammed into it boards or made of concrete.
The barn is built from wood, brick, cinder block, foam block, sandwich panels. It is performed by frame or frameless technology. There are no strict requirements for wall materials. The choice of what the farm for cows will be made of depends on the financial possibilities of the entrepreneur and on the climatic conditions of the region.
The internal structure of the room
The inside of the barn is a stall system with troughs and aisles.
There are clear requirements for the size of the stall. It should be 1.7x1.1 m. For the convenience of animals, straw or dry sawdust is poured on the floor. As mentioned above, a gutter for sewage flow is equipped. It is made in the back of the stall, and in the front - feeding and watering.
The self-made feeding trough represents a chute from boards which length corresponds to stall length. The function of the drinker can perform a simple bucket.
However, industrial feeders and drinkers are now being produced, which can be used on the farm individually or based on several livestock heads. The first option is more hygienic, serves as prevention against the transmission of diseases from one individual to another.
In addition, the cattle farm should have a room for feed, a place to store manure, a walking place and grazing animals. Depending on the objectives of the farm, it may be necessary to provide for the construction of a downhole and cutting workshop, cold rooms for storing products and processing them.
Mechanization of farm labor
In our century of technological development, including in agriculture, a barn on a farm can be considered as a complex object with many nuances. From the outset, it should be clear about the number of animals, such as bulls, you will contain. If we are talking about several individuals, then the barn in the farm can be created with your own hands. When it comes to a farm for 100 heads or more, one cannot do without the help of professionals in the field of erecting agricultural buildings and without specialized equipment.
There are firms in the market that design and build livestock farms and complexes, offering businessmen ready-made solutions. There are such options that do not require special human intervention in the process of direct work of the farm. We are talking about robotic farms.
Automation facilitates the process
Livestock cattle is becoming more technological, which is important in the conditions of a shortage of qualified personnel in the village. The automatic farm of cows is a complex of mechanisms for milking and distribution of forages.
Milking cows on the farm is carried out with the help of special equipment. Its development for a farm with a small livestock provides that the animal enters the installation, and the manipulator at this time performs all the necessary work: cleaning and preparing the udder, the milking itself.
Milking "carousel" is designed for farms breeding a significant number of heads of cattle. The animal enters a fenced place on a slowly rotating platform, after which the group of manipulators deals with the necessary procedures. The feeding of the cows is also fully robotic.
Thus, the auto farm is an excellent solution for both the family livestock farm and for the whole complex.
Some more important points
Regardless of whether you have a dairy farm or a bull breeding complex, a place for grazing and animal walking will be required.
Pasture should not be more than 2-3 km away from the farm.
It is desirable that it be on a flat surface or a small hill, but not in a valley. Otherwise, animals will spend a lot of energy on movement, which will negatively affect their productivity.
Being engaged in farming, it should be remembered that there are strict veterinary, sanitary and epidemiological requirements for livestock farms.
In this regard, the livestock breeder needs to foresee the possibility of creating his own laboratory on the farm, in which the quality and safety of products will be checked, or enter into an appropriate service contract with an outside organization.
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