Modern milking machines are a real rescue of livestock farms. After all, on large and medium farms milking of cows can not be imagined without the use of specialized equipment. Its type and use directly depends on the method of keeping cattle. Automating the process can significantly simplify the work of the barn workers, as well as reduce the cost of the finished product and the risk of injury to animals.
General principles of work
Milking machines are used for milking cattle. There are several types of units for milking cows, which are capable of performing various operations. These devices operate due to the vacuum created by the pumping equipment (works with the help of an electric motor). The devices allow to keep a clear record of milk yield from each animal, have a device for issuing feed, allow you to wash the udder of the animal before milking.
The milking machine, as one of the main parts of this device, is completed with four glasses, a pulsator, a vacuum and milk pipeline, and a tank. During milking, glasses are put on the udder of the animal, resulting in the formation of two chambers.
Milking machines with the help of a collector and a pulsator are connected to a vacuum wire and a milk line or container.
Equipment for milking cows in stalls happens with mobile or portable milking machines. There may also be a device with a milk line along the stalls and changing location (powered by an electric motor of a vacuum pump through a flexible cable).
Four factors of equipment selection
Today, device manufacturers pay great attention to improving their technical characteristics. All installations used for milking cows are divided into:
- the type of container in which the milk is collected;
- the number of cycles;
- the number of serviced cows;
- view of the pump.
By the type of capacity, there are apparatuses in which milk is directed through pipelines to a milk receiver or to a specially prepared container. The first type of equipment is often stationary and is used in large farms, the number of cattle in which exceeds 500 individuals.
Devices of the second type are most often mobile and are used in small barns. As for strokes, there are two-stroke milking machines (excellent for use at different times of the year), three-stroke ones (used for economic complexes), which have a large number of cattle.
Milking equipment with a diaphragm pumping device is used for aggregating pairwise milking. Piston has more power, but it makes more noise. Rotary - the most reliable, but also expensive, allows you to serve up to 100 cows.
Installations milking like "Fir-tree" are convenient for the enterprises with a large number of the heads. The devices consist of a vacuum line, feeders, a milk receiving and accounting system, a tank, a feed hopper, and a feed distribution system.
The milking parlor where this equipment is used can accommodate a different number of cows. With this unit, animals can be milked continuously by collecting milk in a common container.
The system can work both in semi-automatic and automatic mode. The main advantages of the Yolochka type milking device are excellent throughput, high level of automation, simplicity of design, reasonable price. The automatic milking system of cattle has individual counters of milk. All the data is recorded in a common information base on the main computer.
The milking machine "Yolochka" allows you to maximally automate the process of milking cows, reduce the length of the milk pipeline to a minimum and reduce the number of service workers.
The main lack of equipment - the maximum number of animals that can be in the milking parlor is limited. Capacity 80 heads per hour.
One of the most popular models is the UDA milking machine. The maintenance of such devices is carried out with the help of one or two operators, who disconnect the teat cups while reducing the milk yield.
High performance solution
For year-round milking on the farm complex in specialized halls, the use of automatic milking machines UDA-16A is practiced. These devices are used for tethering cows, but may be useful for loose housing. The devices consist of two group machines, which hold 8 animals each, are used on farms for milking cattle, which are carefully selected for their productivity indicators.
The milking machine can be with electronic or pneumatic control of manipulators, as well as with a different number of scotomes. The devices have a high level of performance of vacuum installations, which is 180 cubic meters / hour. The unit is able to serve 350 heads of cattle, its application will ensure the transportation of milk through the pipeline and the processing of the udder of animals before milking.
By the way, you can automate the milking process in a small household, using equipment for a smaller number of livestock. We recommend to pay attention to the article "Milking machines" Farmer ".
The use of milking machines UDA-8A "Tandem" is appropriate where there is not enough selection of livestock, where individual maintenance of cattle is required. Such milking equipment has feeders that operate in different modes of filling dispensers (manual, automatic). With the help of this device, milking of cows is carried out on separate machines in conditions of tethered or loose housing for animals.
The main advantage of the equipment is that in the machines they milk animals with different productivity and having any duration of milking. Vacuum lines of the apparatus are made of durable galvanized pipes. Due to the convenience of working with the device, an individual approach to each cow is provided, which makes it possible to milk highly productive and breeding animals.
Milking machine "Parallel" is used for machine milking of cows with the obligatory presence of a special platform in the machines (placed in pairs at right angles to the process pit). The devices are equipped with milking station milking control modules. The system is equipped with a screen for milk yield readings and the flow rate of the dairy product. Power of the unit makes 49 kW.
The Parallel milking machine is equipped with a quick exit from the machines, which makes it possible to save about 7 minutes on milking every 100 heads of cattle, as compared with the usual output. The disadvantage of the unit is the lack of an automated system for dosing of animals.
One of the most popular among farmers is the Europarallel milking parlor, featuring a unique technological feature - the separation of the milking area of animals and the site where the main equipment is located. Installation of this type of hall is best suited for large rooms. Details on the various types of buildings can be found in the article "Organization of milking parlors."
Features of pasture milking devices
Mobile devices PDU-8 are used for machine milking of animals in the milk line on the meadow, as well as in the milking halls of farm complexes. In the sections of these units there are 4 feeders and 8 feeders.
With the help of a mobile milking machine, from 8 to 60 heads can be molded simultaneously for 1 hour. Vacuum is produced by a high-tech water ring station with a capacity of 75 cubic meters per hour.
Mobile mobile machinery for cows can be operated from an electric motor or from a tractor's power take-off shaft. The remote control units can be equipped with milking machines for simultaneous and pair milking. The collector device is used to collect milk. Currently, these devices are produced with an autonomous motor of low power. The use of this engine will save in one season from 5500 to 6500 liters of fuel.
In large farms with high-performance livestock kept without a leash, the milking carousel is used. It has a rotating platform for milking the carousel, on which there are animals and machine tools. The frequency of rotation of the equipment is adjusted depending on the speed of lactation of cows. The operator is placed behind the control panel, which saves him from unnecessary movements. The milk line of the device is washed in automatic mode, according to a predetermined program.
Modern milking machines are serviced by an operator and a cattleman, who changes the groups of animals in the pre-dwelling area, as well as engages cows to manipulate sanitary treatment. The power of the electric motor of this device is 25 kW. The milking unit is designed for 800 cattle with a capacity of 104 individuals per hour.
We talked about milking plants for halls, but if you are interested in machine milking devices used in private farms, we recommend reading the article “Milking machines in the auxiliary farm”.
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