To feed the cows and prepare them food, it is necessary to organize a competent barn water supply. Today, in livestock farms, water is also used to sanitize milking machines, dairy tanks and dishes, washing out the udder, washing cows, and cleaning the premises. Uninterrupted water supply to the farm is one of the main conditions for milk production. That is why it is very important to properly design and install high-quality plumbing for the economic complex.
Barn water supply schemes
Water supply systems for livestock farms are a combination of various devices and engineering facilities necessary for the extraction, pumping, storage and delivery of the necessary liquid to the barn. Local communications (have their own water source, pumping devices and water supply) are used for centralized water supply of livestock breeding complexes, and group - for maintenance of several large facilities connected by a common territory.
Water supply of a cattle farm is a source of liquid, a water intake facility, pumping installations, external and internal water supply networks. Often the scheme is complemented by filters or other equipment that purifies water.
In pressurized water pipes, liquid is supplied by pumping equipment, in gravity systems the main element (source) is located above the level of the barn.
For water supply of livestock farms and complexes, local and centralized types are used that have underground water sources and fire tanks with a liquid reserve.
Determination of the scheme of external plumbing
In the farms there is an external water supply system, which is laid outside the building, and the internal one - directly distributing water to the household. The external network can be dead-end, where the main lines of communication are diverted from the main highway, through which the fluid moves in one direction.
An annular circuit is also used, which is a closed-loop pipeline in which water is supplied to the livestock farm on both sides.
The main advantage of a dead-end system designed for a farm is a small length, which allows to reduce the cost of laying. The main disadvantage is that in case of an emergency it will be necessary to disconnect the whole barn from the water supply. The use of a ring circuit on the farm makes it possible to repair the damaged areas without interrupting the supply of liquid to the farm. A significant drawback is the length of the pipelines and the increased costs.
Given the lower cost of installation and operation, many prefer the dead-end water supply scheme. It is drawn on the plan with the shortest path length and the number of branching nodes. This calculation assumes that in all areas there are 2 streams with the corresponding consumption expenditure.
Technological and hydraulic calculations
Water in barns is required for technological, household, and hygienic needs, and outside fire water supply is not complete without it.
When calculating the required amount of liquid for the livestock complex, it is first necessary to calculate the average daily consumption of stocks. Depending on the number of cows contained and the water consumption norms that are set for these farms, it depends on how the farms are supplied with liquid. After that, determine the maximum water consumption, taking into account the coefficient of daily irregularity (because this value is used for further calculations).
Depending on different conditions, the daily consumption of liquid in the barn can reach up to several hundred cubic meters. The calculation of the water supply system must be carried out in such a way that the network provides a high-quality supply of water for watering cattle, because its lack will instantly cause a decrease in productivity.
According to SNiPs, there are certain norms of water consumption (measured in liters per day). For example, for:
- cows - 70;
- gobies - 45;
- young cows up to 2 years old - 35;
- calves up to six months - 25.
Hydraulic calculation of water supply allows you to determine the diameter of the pipeline and the reduction in pressure as a result of overcoming resistance in pipes when they pass the required amount of liquid. It will be necessary to determine this indicator in order to find out what height the water tower should have and what technical characteristics of pumping equipment.
Mechanization of water supply management
The organization of water supply for livestock farms requires significant human labor costs. The calculation shows that for the delivery of 1 cu. m of water and its distribution to cows without mechanization will require about 5-6 people / h, and in the case of automation - 0.04-0.05 people / h. This shows that the transition to innovative technologies makes it possible to reduce labor costs by several times.
The required pressure in the network is created with the help of pumping equipment that delivers water from the source to the collection tanks or treatment facilities. After that, the pumps pump fluid into the tower and then to the water mains in the network.
For pumping water from different types of sources (deeper or superficial), various mechanisms are applicable. The choice of one or another type, the definition of power depends on the depth of the water source, its flow rate and the amount of liquid required for households. Water-lifting devices are manual, motor-powered and self-acting.
In the water supply of the barns used hand, drive piston and centrifugal pumps, compressor units, hydraulic rams.
Mechanization of water supply contributes to reducing labor costs, increasing productivity and creating the required sanitary conditions in the barn premises.
Water towers and reservoirs
Water towers provide the required pressure in the general network, with their help the water supply is regulated, the issue of storage of its stocks is solved. To do this, use underground tanks, - of which then the liquid enters the pipelines when using pumps.
In livestock farms, most often use headless towers, columns made of metal. They are produced with different capacities (up to 50 cubic meters) and heights (10-30 meters). Column structures are also filled with water. As a result, real reserves are much larger than indicated in the equipment passport.
Agriculture presupposes the obligatory availability of a reserve of water resources, which must be on hand in case of a fire (must be in land or underground free-flow reservoirs). Water from them is served by special fire pumps. In the absence of such containers, liquid is taken from reservoirs or rivers.
According to the standards, the water tank should place in itself a supply that will be enough for 10 minutes of work of fire hydrants in parallel with the standard expenditure for other needs.
The use of equipment for watering cows
The farm does not do without drinkers. These devices are invariably used for feeding cows. There is direct contact with cattle, so the products must be made taking into account the anatomical features of animals. Autodrinkers are specialized devices, thanks to which cattle themselves are supplied with drinking water from a water supply system.
The use of special equipment for the watering of cattle in livestock farms makes it possible to increase the yield by 15-20% and significantly reduce the labor costs of staff for the maintenance of animals.
Individual auto drinkers are used on cow farms where tethered content prevails. Group devices are used for cows, which are kept loosely. Such equipment can be stationary or mobile. The latter species is used during cattle grazing.
For pig houses, auto drinkers are used, equipped with a special valve (ball) placed in a special tank. The trough for adaptation is performed with a lid that protects the containers from contamination. When a pig drinks water, its level in the trough decreases, the valve moves in parallel and opens the opening of the pipeline. He again fills the trough.
Laying internal water supply on the farm
The internal water supply system on the farm begins with the riser, from which the pipelines branch. In the feed preparation room located at the farm, water is supplied to important appliances (steam generator, water heater, root washer, fruit washer), automatic drinking troughs and watering taps are placed in the stalls.
The laying of the pipeline leading directly to the auto-drinkers is performed along the path of the feeding troughs (the height should be maintained 160 cm from the floor). A pipe (25 mm in diameter) is supplied to each drinking bowl in a rack. These branches are connected to the pipeline with special fasteners, and from the bottom they are screwed to the tee of the watering device. In the aisles at a height of 2.5 m from the floor level, transitions in the shape of the letter “P” are made.
The use of auto-drinking machines is a thoughtful step of water supply for livestock farms. Cows constantly get clean water, drink it for their own needs. Qualitative reserves will protect cattle from gastrointestinal diseases, and the constant use of fluid helps to improve the condition of animals and a significant increase in the productivity of the enterprise.
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