A modern mini-farm for family-type cows is the dream of many villagers. But not everyone decides to acquire such a useful and very profitable business. The reasons for this mass, ranging from indecision and ending with a banal lack of money. Let's analyze in detail how realistic it is to independently make a normal mini-farm and what is needed for that. And we will tell practitioners about the specific parameters inherent in a family mini-farm and give recommendations on its construction.
What is the benefit
First of all, we will define the terminology - a mini-farm KRS means a small enterprise, designed for keeping from 10-15, up to 100 heads. If there are fewer animals, then it is rather a subsidiary farm. And if more, the farm is already moving into the category of medium or large enterprises.
To begin with, milk and meat are products that will always be in demand. Neither the government, nor the political system, nor the views in society on this business do not significantly affect.
Small business is almost always a stepping stone to big business. Specifically, the cow business, given the size of the meadows and fields that our country has, does not prevent anything from growing to infinity.
The sale of milk is the first thing that comes to the mind of a common man in the street. But besides this there are still meat farms. Now there is a huge demand for cheeses, yoghurts and other dairy products. Gradually buying more equipment, you will grow to a mini-plant.
Plus you offer an environmentally friendly, real product and it is guaranteed to find a buyer. Add to this the sale of calves, bulls and the same manure for fertilizer, and you will understand that with a reasonable approach - this is a bonanza. And for starters, you will provide yourself and family with work.
Where to get money
If we consider the farm as a business, then the surest option is to save money, but it is also the hardest to implement. Far from everyone, it turns out, to save money, plus it takes time and decent work to accumulate, and this is where most of the time there are problems.
The banking sector is now willing to give loans for the development of livestock and agriculture. But here you find yourself in bondage to the bank for about 5 years at least. The advantages of this option are obvious, but in the case of force majeure, such as an epidemic on the farm or an increase in feed prices, you are at great risk.
You can try to find a wealthy partner and share business with him. A person invests money in a farm, and you take all the questions from the selection of the site to the sale of goods. When a stable profit goes, a companion gets a permanent passive income, and you - a business with a serious prospect of growth.
And finally, you can try to take money from the state. Each year, young entrepreneurs are given preferential interest-free loans for the development of promising projects. Mini-farm is considered a promising direction and if you make a business plan correctly, you have a real chance to get this money.
General action plan
Starting the construction of a mini-farm for cattle, you need to plan the sequence of actions. That is, make a business plan for yourself. It is better to start from the farm by 10, maximum - 30 goals. Of course, in each particular area there are different conditions and each has a different starting capital. But there are points of the plan that are the same everywhere:
- register an IP - without it, it will be more difficult for you to get a loan and there may be problems with taxation;
- choose a plot for the farm;
- choose or create a farm project;
- solve the issue with the supply of roads and communications;
- build a farm;
- buy cattle;
- decide what to do with the products;
- Consider profits and think about expanding the farm.
Immediately, we note that in many villages there were still Soviet old cowsheds, so they are hardly suitable for a mini-farm, since these enterprises are designed for a large number of heads, and we have a small production facility and the infrastructure is different.
Choice of direction
Initially, the design of a mini-farm is desirable to "tie" to the general specialization of the enterprise. There are several directions - dairy, meat, mixed and raising of young stock for sale.
There are farms with a full cycle, where they do everything at the same time, but to implement such a project in miniature is very problematic and we do not recommend this option.
Dairy farm - a priority, but troublesome direction. Cows need to be able to care for, if you clearly understand such concepts as a dry period, service period, competent fertilization, distribution and acceptance of childbirth, then you can safely take it. By the way, the meat and dairy farm will be more profitable, but there it is even more difficult.
Growing steers for meat is almost ideal for novice farmers. You buy calves at the age of 3-4 months and feed them up to one and a half years. The average weight of a slaughter bull is 400-500 kg, and the young veal in the markets will be “torn off” with your hands. But in order to get real profits from the farm, you yourself must be able to beat and butcher cattle.
For growing young stock you need greenhouse conditions on the farm, breeding producers and very good feed. Without experience it is better not to take it.
Site selection criteria
Before you build a mini-farm, you need to find a good place for it. By the way, we do not highly recommend building a farm in our garden. Keeping a cow and a calf at home is normal, and when there are more than a dozen of them, the smell from the farm will spread far around. Why do you need so many enemies?
When choosing a place for a farm there are several basic rules. Thus, it is forbidden to build farms closer than 50 m from places of natural water intake and natural reservoirs. Simply put, you cannot put a farm close to wells and rivers. But cows love to swim and nobody forbids you to build your business a hundred meters from the lake.
Well, if there is a forest or a planting nearby, in the midday heat the animals will be able to hide there. An important factor is the availability of forage lands. Of course, you can build a farm with a cow without a walk, but the animals there are not so hardened, plus you have to spend more on the purchase and supply of high-quality feed. The only thing that cannot be done exactly is to build a farm near the marsh, in which case diseases and regular poisoning of your cows are guaranteed.
The ideal option is to order the construction of a turnkey farm according to a finished standard project. The warmed frame cowsheds from a sandwich panels are under construction a maximum in 2 months. But such a farm project will increase the estimate by about 40%.
Build a mini-farm with your own hands is a very real task. As for the mandatory requirements, for the comfort of a cow on a farm with a walking range, you need about 15 square meters. m. Calf requires another 6-8 square meters. m. Under the cultivation of beef bull calculated 12 square meters. m
On a farm without walking the cows are kept in stalls. The size of the stall is 1.25 x 2.7 m. It cannot be made wider, since the cow can turn backwards to the feeder, which means there may be problems with manure in the feeders. Plus, on a farm without walking, you definitely need a paddock for walking. You can not always keep a cow in a cramped stall, it will hurt.
The minimum height of the walls of the farm is 2.5-2.7 m. It is simpler to erect a gable roof without an attic and to make ventilation conclusions in the ridge. But if you arrange the attic, then there can be equipped with a hayloft. However, in this case it is necessary to install forced ventilation. The height of the windows on the farm is 1.5 m and you should not save on them.
The details of building a farm
If you don’t have a real builder’s training, and it’s expensive to hire people for a budget, it’s better to build farm walls from porous concrete (foam or aerated concrete), cinder block or shell rock. With such a clutch amateur can cope. It is costly and difficult to build a farm out of bricks, and the tree absorbs odors and gets wet.
The floors on the farm are made of concrete. So that the concrete is not dragged with dampness and cold, a layer of insulation is bricked up in the screed. Here extruded polystyrene is used, only it is able to withstand the weight of reinforced concrete screed.
The floors in the stalls are poured under a slope to the drainage chute (the slope is 20–30 mm per 1 m / p). The chute is also mounted under a slope. By the way, it is better to make the gutter the size of a shovel, so it will be easier to clean. The mechanized system of manure harvesting on the farm is certainly a big plus, but in the barn up to 30 heads can actually be cleaned with your own hands. Although it is better to plan the installation of mechanisms during the construction phase, there will be money - deliver it.
At the doors and windows of the farm can not save, immediately put the plastic. It is easier to wash and plastic is indifferent to smells, and most importantly - there will be no drafts, because they are very dangerous for cows.
Where to put the goods
Sending milk to a dairy plant is possible, but not the best way. We are talking about mini-farms, respectively, relatively little milk. If you rent or buy a small caravan with a tank, in other words, with a barrel of milk, you will be able to transport milk to the nearest town on your own. By the way, there are milk barrels that can be hooked to a car.
Unsold milk is processed into cheese, cottage cheese and other products and is also exported for sale. If you carry in one place and at the same time, then in a couple of months a queue will wait for you on it.
Meat is a separate issue. If you specialize only in beef, you will have to organize a slaughterhouse at your place and take the finished goods to the market. To hand over carcasses in bulk in small volumes is unprofitable. On dairy and meat and dairy farms every year the livestock almost doubles. Calves can either be sold or kept for development.
Believe me, with a reasonable approach, the topic of animal husbandry is quite profitable. If you like our tips, put likes and share with friends. Perhaps your submission will start another successful business.