Today, dairy farming, with proper organization, is in demand and cost-effective. Products obtained from cow's milk were always in demand, and now, under the conditions of import substitution, the demand for them has grown and exceeds supply. Someone thinks about how to organize his farm for the production, but does not know where to start, what is needed for this and the main thing - how much money will be needed to get a plus. The answers to all these questions are in our article.
Business plan and place for the farm
Open a business is impossible without a good business plan, which should take into account all the nuances of your enterprise. Let's start with the place under the farm. Where it will be located depends on the size. It can be a dairy farm for 50 heads, 100, or 200. Or maybe a tiny household of a dozen cows - solve it right away.
It is expensive to build premises from scratch; you will have to arrange a bunch of documents. Building a farm for 50 cows, without the involvement of third-party companies, will cost at least 2 million rubles. This is the price without communications. Leading gas, electricity, water to the farm will cost several hundred thousand rubles.
There are companies selling ready-made mini-farms for 50 animals, made on standard turnkey projects. Their price varies in the area from 5-6 million rubles and above.
It is easier and cheaper to lease the territory where the dairy farm was located in the past, to carry out repairs in the premises. For a farm of 50 heads you need about 1300 square meters. m square. The rental price may be different, but in any case from 150 thousand rubles a month. Another 300-400 thousand will have to spend on repairs and disinfection.
Of course, if you want a farm not for 50, but, for example, for 200 heads, you will need more money.
Selection of agricultural machinery and equipment
The next costly event is the purchase of equipment. Dairy farming is very demanding in this regard, so the equipment must be good.
To bring in a proper hangar, you need at least 2 million rubles. This includes stalls, floor coverings, ventilation, fencing, partitions, drinkers, the purchase of milk coolers, livestock care products, the organization of the maternity ward and others.
Household equipment and equipment for the farm will also be needed. You will need a tractor for transportation of feed, waste and for other work. You can take a used MTZ-80, it will cost about 900 thousand rubles.
You will need a mower, tools for harvesting hay and a car "Gazelle". The machine is needed to transport milk, meat, and for everyday household chores. All this together costs around 1 million rubles.
About 100 thousand rubles will cost milking machines (5 pieces). Do not forget about household trifles: shovels, buckets, forks, clothing for workers, office equipment and stationery. Put on them another 100 thousand rubles.
If desired, you can buy a mini-shop, produce sour cream, cottage cheese and other dairy products. It costs about 1 million rubles.
We buy animals: who cares
What dairy farm without cows? The best breeds for your undertaking are Holstein, black-and-white, Kholmogory and Dutch. But there are others. These show the highest milk yield and give good milk in all respects (for details, see the article "The chemical composition of milk").
Livestock purchases can vary greatly depending on the breed and age of the animals. You can buy a young calf from 20 thousand rubles, but you have to wait until it grows up, to carry out insemination. An adult cash cow costs from 60 thousand rubles.
If we consider that we are considering an example of a dairy farm for 50 animals, you will need from 1 to 3 million rubles for the purchase of cattle. But, acquiring young animals, products will receive no earlier than one year after the start of work.
Spending on feed, staff, vet
It is necessary to take into account the cost of animal nutrition, maintenance of employees and the mandatory services of a veterinarian.
At the feed, including concentrates, hay and salt lizunets, you need to lay at least 600 thousand rubles a year. About 100 thousand will be needed to pay for the work of a veterinarian, drugs for cows. Do not forget that the cows on the farm will need to be inseminated. This is a few tens of thousands of rubles.
Dairy farm can not work without staff. Have to hire at least six people. These are two milkmaids with a salary in the region of 20 thousand rubles, a farm manager (25 thousand rubles), a couple of handymen, also 20 thousand each, and a driver (20-25 thousand rubles). Salaries, of course, we take the average. They may differ. Do not forget about the accountant. You can take an employee to the state, hire a visiting specialist, or deal with finance yourself.
If you are planning grazing the herd, you need to rent a place for grazing. It costs about 300 thousand rubles a year.
To sell their products
You need to think about this before opening your dairy farm. Especially if, besides milk, you want to make cheese, cottage cheese or other products. It is no secret that it is easier for large producers to find a market for their products, since it is easier for processing enterprises to purchase several large quantities of milk than many small ones. In addition, a large manufacturer often pays for milk more than the owner of private households. The difference can be 20-30%.
You can, of course, put your points or trade on the market, negotiate with the owners of other stores, but the development of your own network is a separate topic, it is difficult and expensive. Good profits in such ways quickly do not get.
It is more profitable and promising to negotiate with large, proven dairies, combines producing cottage cheese, cheeses and other dairy products. For success, your farm should produce as much and high quality milk as possible. Therefore, you can not save on feed, equipment maintenance, veterinarian and other issues affecting the performance of cows, milk purity.
Pitfalls and profitability
Like any business, dairy farming poses certain difficulties. Not all novice farmers consider that cows do not give milk all year round. This is a seasonal process, based on this you need to plan the pregnancy and calving of cattle, think about how to provide the consumer constantly. Why is it important? Because while you are waiting for lactation of cows, your customers will find another supplier and may not return to you.
If you plan an addition in the herd for September, and active lactation for the period from October to January, you will not have a question about exactly where to put the milk - there will always be demand.
On average, cows with good nutrition and care give 5 thousand liters of milk per year. With 50 cows it is 250 thousand liters. The cost of the raw product varies depending on the region and time of year. In winter, it is more expensive, in summer the cost is traditionally reduced. In 2017 in Russia, the average price per kilogram was 23 rubles. By multiplying this figure by the planned volumes, subtracting the costs, you can calculate the profitability of the farm.
In general, for the investment to pay off, it will take 3-5 years of stable work.
The legal side of the issue
To open a dairy farm you will need to register as a legal entity or an individual entrepreneur. Documents will be required:
- application for registration;
- receipt of payment of state duty;
- lease contract;
- permission of Rosprirodnadzor;
- fire service authorization;
- permission of the veterinary service.
It is necessary to open personal accounts for communications. Over time, we will need more quality certificates that the farm products receive after veterinary testing. If you want to sell milk in stores, you will need to get permission for this.
Do not forget that you will need to pay taxes. For a dairy farm, it is better to choose the UAT system (single agricultural tax). This is a taxation system specifically introduced as a support for agricultural producers in Russia. In this case, it is more profitable than others.
Finance: where to get money for development
To open a farm for 200 heads, 50 or 10 will require its own funds. But not everyone has ten million. This will help loans and state support.
Agriculture is a priority strategic area. Therefore, manufacturers are supported in the form of state programs. It gives low rates on loans, preferential terms for leasing agricultural machinery and equipment, subsidies. You can get a loan at any bank where there is a corresponding one. Term - from 2 to 15 years.
To get a loan and open production, you need to meet the requirements. So, you should not have tax and other debts. You should not have another company in bankruptcy, reorganization or liquidation.
The first installment can be "paid" with the money already used. To do this, the bank must provide documents confirming the costs of farm facilities.
Also remember that by participating in the state program, you will be required to report on the use of money strictly for its intended purpose.
How else can you earn by keeping a dairy farm
Milk is not the only thing that can be earned by having a farm, albeit a small one. First, you can do the production of dairy products by buying a mini-shop. Cottage cheese, sour cream, yogurts are always in demand.
With successful development, you will be on the shoulder even independent dairy, cottage cheese and other shops. This is a good source of income, costs quickly pay off. However, at the initial stage, while milk production is not yet established, it is better not to take on cottage cheese, cheese and butter.
Another additional source of money is the sale of livestock for meat. Sooner or later, the cows on the farm will serve their time, they can be given for slaughter. Also, part of the livestock will be rejected as the population grows, not meeting some requirements.
Finally, you can do the sale of young. If the farm is a good herd, trade in breeding animals will be very profitable. Of course, this is also not worth thinking about from the first day, but making sure that your business is more or less on its feet.
Summarizing, we can say that dairy farming, although it requires a large investment, is a profitable industry. The main thing is to organize everything correctly.
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