Due to the non-observance of safety, a fire may occur, which is why putting out fires in buildings of animal-breeding complexes is the first thing that employees should be familiar with. Production regulations are extremely strict. The duties of each farm worker have a clear framework and close relationship, so his violation can cause chaos. Not only in the barn, but also in the stables and pigsty, staff must know their duties and rules of conduct in an emergency.
Animal husbandry manager and his duties
In large-scale livestock farming, one cannot do without a competent manager who knows the principles of labor organization, who knows how to organize the work of personnel and who has the skills to settle force majeure circumstances. Such a person is an intermediary between the management of the farm and the staff, a link necessary for their interaction and smoothing of sharp corners.
The duties of the manager include the management of the farm, which occurs through daily planning meetings, scheduling and carrying out internal work. He will deal with the regulation of employee employment, keep records, be responsible for repairs and procurement, monitor contracts and supplies. For any problems on the farm, the manual asks it from him.
It is the manager who is responsible for the reception and dismissal of employees who do not fulfill their duties, as well as for their work. Personnel can turn to him with their questions and wishes. Find a competent manager - to provide more than half the success of the farm.
The value of competent organization of the working day
For proper management of the dairy farm or beef cattle, it is important to strictly follow the work regulations. Each action in the economy is subject to a certain order and has a time frame. If a link fails, then the entire workflow is disrupted, which affects production efficiency and its profit.
All staff must comply with the daily routine on the farm, so as not to disrupt production work.
The table presents an approximate schedule for which the farm “lives”, where all the fundamental moments of the work of the herder are taken into account:
From the table it is clear that the day of the farm employee is arranged by the hour. This allows you to organize a continuous and consistent mode of operation. In addition, care is clearly delineated for the different layers of the herd.
The main reason for the violation of the stability of the farm is a late employee. For non-compliance with the working mode, a fine is imposed on the staff, usually in the amount of 15% of the bonus. This measure allows you to negate the disruption of the workflow, leading to a decrease in animal productivity and financial costs.
Brigadier and his duties
The organization of work on livestock farms can not do without a brigadier. Responsibilities are built on 4 “pillars”: keeping a daily routine, controlling livestock, overseeing safety and spending resources.
Also, the foreman monitors the correct implementation of the resulting products, controls the level of livestock and is responsible for the expenditure of feed stocks from the warehouses of the farm. His responsibilities include the organization of pasture walking and stall maintenance. On the shoulders of this worker lies control over the schedule, the responsibility for the additional procurement of inventory and feed, the placement of new members of the herd. It is he who is responsible for the restructuring of the farm in accordance with the seasonality.
The foreman is engaged in the formation of working teams, the distribution of responsibilities in groups and attachment of animals to them. He is responsible for labor and production discipline, for the observance of standards for waste disposal, for safety on the farm.
In the event that an emergency happens on the farm, the manager asks from the foreman.
Brigade staff and their duties
In addition to the brigadier, the farm staff is formed by three more basic categories of personnel: milkmaids, calf huts and cattlemen. Caring for animals is the responsibility of these people. The success of the cattle-breeding complex depends on the quality of their work.
The duties of the first include: feeding, cleaning, preparing for calving, receiving babies, cleaning, working with the milking machine, milking. The relationship of cows and milkmaids is very strong, so for each employee fixed heifer, with whom she works.
The duties of calf houses on the farm include the care of the young. They monitor the feeding and watering of babies, track their weight, clean the stalls and are responsible for the cleanliness of the room. If calves are brought up on the nursing method, then care for the nurse cows is added to the duties.
The duties of a cattle include cleaning the premises of the farm, feeding feed, manure removal. If the animals are kept in a loose housing mode, then it is required to clean pastures and feeding grounds, lay bedding and transfer the heifers to the maternity ward.
Who is a cattleman, and what he does on the farm
On a large farm, where cattle are raised and their products are being produced, a cattleman is a necessary employee who does all the hard work. He must have a secondary specialized education in the field of animal husbandry, or work with animals for more than 3 years. He is obliged to study:
- animal content requirements;
- rules of mechanization of production and the basics of equipment operation;
- basics of working with disinfection;
- basics of veterinary medicine;
- first aid procedure for sick animals;
- feeding and grazing processes;
- the basics of organizing the accounting of the herd;
- basis of production on the farm.
In addition, the cattleman is obliged to strictly comply with the rules on labor protection, industrial sanitation and personal hygiene, as well as comply with all regulations on FBD (Fire Safety Regulations) on the farm. For non-compliance, a fine may be imposed on him, followed by dismissal in case of repeated violation of official instructions.
Occupational safety standards: climate, noise, light, temperature
Labor protection is governed by labor laws. Failure to comply with the laws is punishable by fines, which is why the job description of the employee obliges strict compliance with the rules and regulations prescribed by law.
Labor protection standards are monitored by the federal supervisory authority. Special attention is paid to the microclimate in the working environment. If the indicators of harmful substances in the air on the farm exceed the permissible values, the personnel should be provided with protective equipment. When organizing jobs on cattle farms, the noise level should not exceed 80 dBA (acoustic decibel).
The job description of the milking machine operator indicates that his workplace should be more illuminated than the rest of the room. As for the temperature regime, according to the safety standards, the surfaces with which they work on the farm should not be warmer than 35 degrees.
Control over labor protection rests with the manager and foreman of the farm. Their job description includes responsibilities for the timely control of harmful factors and the elimination of those upon detection.
Harmful factors of the production process
The job description of the foreman and the manager prescribes to ensure that the following factors are removed from the workflow that can harm the farm staff:
- assaults moving installations;
- excessive dust, humidity, temperature;
- high noise level;
- increased levels of radiation from infrared and ultraviolet radiation;
- low natural and artificial light;
- electrical safety;
- increased levels of biological waste and work on their improper disposal.
Managers occupying the above positions are obliged to ensure that the workplaces of staff are not located at high altitude in order to avoid traumatic falls. In addition, in the veterinary and sanitary rules for dairy farms, it is prescribed that the premises should not contain viruses, fungi, parasites, as well as other pathogens of invasive diseases.
Fire Safety Basics
Farm personnel are required to learn the fire safety requirements. No employee is allowed to work until he is instructed. It can be carried out by a responsible person or the immediate superior.
There are 5 types of briefings: introductory, primary, repeated, unscheduled and targeted. Of these, only the introductory is obliged to carry out the chief of the fire service, the rest can be trusted with the brigade leader.
On the cattle farm must be a fire department. Day and night, its employees are on duty, monitor security and eliminate fires if necessary. Such workers are sent to learn the fire-technical minimum, so that they can competently act in the event of a fire or evacuation.
Actions in case of fire
The actions of personnel in case of fire on the farm should be clear and quick. Their main goal is not to extinguish the fire, if the center is large and spreads quickly, but to remove the herd from the pens. At the same time, the driver of calves plays an important role, being able to force the flock to leave their stalls quickly and purposefully.
Studies have shown that cattle kept loosely leave the pens on their own as soon as the flaps open. The calf driver is needed if the cows are tied up - in this case they will not leave the stall on their own.
All personnel, whether a milking operator, a shepherd or a veterinarian, should be involved in the evacuation of animals. It is important to remember that nursing chicks will try to find their babies and will want to return to the dangerous building. To prevent this, cows are tied outdoors. Quenching the fire itself is carried out by experienced specialists, who must be called immediately after detecting a fire.
Basics of environmental interaction
In the 21st century, environmental protection is enormous, which is why there are a number of restrictions when choosing a site for building a farm. The territories where cattle cemeteries, cemeteries, sewage treatment plants, manure depots, industrial waste disposal or leather and raw materials enterprises were located are strictly prohibited.
It is important to consider the distance from open water structures. This distance should not be less than 500 meters. Developing a plan for the construction of the farm, it is necessary to preserve the natural green spaces. In addition, planting of trees should be carried out regularly around the territory of the cattle-breeding complex.
It is equally important to think about recycling biological waste. The territory should be equipped so that manure does not fall into the water bodies and does not emit harmful substances into the atmosphere. To do this, large farms establish manure processing compartments. On small slaughterhouses dispose of waste by export.
Biological waste and their disposal
Utilization of biological waste includes the destruction of dead animals, meat of livestock that have not passed the veterinary commission, dead fruits of cows and other waste obtained during processing of the carcass.
Biological waste disposal is carried out in special plants or in separately equipped workshops, in biothermal pits after disinfection. Often dead cattle are simply burned if the farm has a large enough area or its own crematorium.
Burial in land of biological waste is permitted only after obtaining permission for such a procedure and in special places. Dumping them into ponds is prohibited, as well as being taken to household landfills or landfills for burial.
General ideas about veterinary sanitary standards
Compliance with veterinary and sanitary standards - the main task of all farm staff. And in the dairy shop, where they milk the cows, and in the production and downhole department veterinary regulations must be respected. All the rules, more than 200 points, are aimed at solving several important problems.
The first is to preserve the health of the herd and get quality products. Secondly, safe production from the veterinary point of view is not contaminated milk and meat products. The third is to prevent the emergence of an epidemic on the farm and to transmit diseases to people. Fourth - environmental protection.
A whole staff is responsible for the quality of products and for the observance of veterinary and sanitary rules. Dairy farms must hire a dairy production technician who monitors quality, time, storage conditions, processing and transportation. The control occurs at all stages, and when we milk a cow, and when we process the resulting product - until complete sealing.
In the event of a shortage of space, a cow can be milked in the stall, but the animal health regulations prescribe the mandatory construction of some buildings necessary for the safety of the herd and staff. So, on the farm there must be a quarantine room, inhalation and hospital.
If the livestock exceeds 6000 head, then on the cattle farm you need to build your own veterinary center. Slaughter complex must be erected, if the herd has more than 5,000 cows. If the animals are smaller, then you can send them to the plants.
On modern farms, an artificial insemination station is equipped, as this is the safest method for obtaining offspring. This item should have its own disinfection sector and a laboratory for sperm control.
In this regard, additional staff will be required in these structures.
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