When the microclimate of livestock buildings for cattle does not meet the standards, the farmer himself suffers first of all. Lack of light, high humidity, heat and other, sometimes unobvious factors reduce the productivity of animals, their lifespan. In addition, they affect the durability of the equipment and the premises themselves. Organizing the maintenance of animals in all the rules, you may incur additional expenses at the beginning, but they will more than pay off in the future.
About the importance of environmental indicators
The microclimate is all environmental indicators together. Air temperature, humidity, light, air composition, presence of bacteria.
A variety of factors affect the microclimate. This is the climate in the region, the season, the number of animals, the ventilation systems and the size of the premises, their thermal conductivity, the mode of the day, the method of keeping livestock and even its age.
Invisible changes in the microclimate can seriously affect the health of animals and reduce their productivity by 20-40%. The gain of live weight decreases, the young growth perishes more often. Also, under adverse conditions in the barn, the number of diseases increases, which leads to a general loss of livestock. It is especially hard for calves, highly productive cows and breeding cattle. At the same time, if we talk about temperature, both very low rates and heat are harmful. Moreover, cattle suffers from stuffiness especially hard.
In addition, a poor microclimate almost triples the life of agricultural premises, and requires more frequent and expensive repairs. It affects the health of employees.
Standards of temperature in rooms for cattle in summer
Air temperature directly affects the heat exchange processes in the body of animals. Its unfavorable values lead to a decrease in milk yields, changes in appetite, and disturbances in the functioning of internal organs.
The cows endure a high temperature in summer worse than cold. It is especially dangerous with high humidity and lack of ventilation. In the heat of livestock, the metabolism slows down, the production of digestive enzymes, motility of the gastrointestinal tract decreases. As a consequence, appetite decreases, nutrients from the feed are poorly absorbed and productivity decreases.
In addition, cows sweat, losing salts and vitamins. They decrease hemoglobin and in general the composition of the blood changes.
The optimum temperature for the barn is 8 to 22 degrees Celsius. Then the processes of "inhibition" in the body of a cattle begin.
If the thermometer in the room for animals shows all 30 degrees in the summer, this is unacceptable. Therefore, it is very important to cool the barn in the heat.
Cooling systems for livestock buildings
Barns are cooled by ventilation. It also helps to purify the air. Ventilation systems can be of various types:
- using mixers;
- forced-air (or natural) ventilation;
- tunnel ventilation;
- cross ventilation.
Fans, or mixers, must be from 70 cm radius and be at a distance of 10-12 m from each other at an angle of 15 degrees. So the air will actively circulate between them. However, in the heat of these devices are ineffective, as the air source for them is either a street or a shed.
Tunnel ventilation works well in narrow barns. Fans are installed at one end of the room so that they drive air at a speed of 7 m per second. Heated air is also drawn out.
Cross-ventilation is different in that it is used in barns with a large area. Fans are placed around the room, located along.
Where air comes from, you can install cooling radiators to reduce the temperature. This is quite expensive, since the fans are installed every two meters.
Details on natural ventilation
Such a ventilation system can be pipe and pipeless. The first is more effective. It includes air inlet holes in the walls and exhaust pipes with valves that carry the ridge of the roof.
Pipeless system is ventilation through windows, openings in walls, gates. Its disadvantage is that it is almost impossible to adjust and depends heavily on weather conditions, but this is the most common system.
In the summer all openings for air open. It is good if the building is high enough and wide - in the heat of one cow should account for about 40 cubic meters of area. In the longitudinal walls make windows for air flow. Their transom open inward so that the air goes parallel to the line of the roof. Windows need to provide protective screens. Also needed and light horse barn on the roof. At the same time, the roof should have overhangs up to 1 meter so that rain and direct rays of the sun would not fall on the cattle.
Air exchange rates in summer: 70 cubic meters per hour per centner of adult animals, from 100 to 120 cubic meters for calves, for young animals - 250 cubic meters per hour.
Ventilation and temperature during the cold season
Cows are well tolerated by the cold, so in countries where there is no strong minus, often barns, similar to a barn, are built with almost completely open walls. When cold, the openings in the walls are covered with a special film. However, this method is not suitable for Russia. Especially for regions where there are frosts over 20 degrees.
In winter, the barn must be protected and well ventilated at the same time. Although the cows love coolness, the temperature should not fall below +4 degrees. Optimally, as we have already written, from +8 degrees. Theoretically, it may be colder, but this leads to overruns of feed, animal injuries about freezing manure, damage to equipment.
The important role played by the insulation of enclosing structures. In winter, it allows you to retain heat released by animals without disturbing the cooling of the premises in summer.
Air inflow in winter should be in the amount of 17 cubic meters per hour for every centner of adult cows, from 20 cubic meters per hour for calves and 60 cubic meters for young animals. The speed of the air is not more than 0.5 meters per second. It should also be borne in mind that the air penetrates the room and through different slots, therefore, for the winter, all the air inlets are reduced by 30%. The size of the holes in the skate area should be 10 cu. m
Which humidity is better - low or high
In fact, neither one nor the other. Humidity - just like temperature - strongly affects thermoregulation. In particular, on the return of heat. Moreover, humidity of more than 85% is harmful both at very high and at low temperatures.
The optimum level of humidity for livestock 50-70%. High humidity slows down metabolic processes, reduces the body's resistance to infections. So, if the barn is very humid, animals are much more likely to suffer from gastrointestinal, catarrhal, and skin diseases. Calves living in rooms with a humidity of 90-100% and temperatures from +10 to -2 degrees gain 15-20% less mass.
At the same time, too low humidity is dangerous. If it is less than 30-40%, and the temperature in the barn is higher than normal, it not only causes strong thirst, dryness of the mucous membranes of the cattle, but also has a detrimental effect on the immune system.
The effect of air chemistry on cattle health
In the process of life, cows emit various substances, so the air, where they are kept, is not at all the same as on the street. With a shortage of fresh air masses and an excess of various gases, animals begin to ache, even to death. That is why, speaking of the microclimate of the cowsheds, one cannot ignore this topic.
What substances are important? First, it is carbon dioxide (CO2). In some premises for livestock, its concentration reaches from 0.5 to 1%. This is a lot. If cows stay in such conditions for a long time, chronic intoxication occurs. The normal CO2 content in the barn is 0.25%.
Also dangerous are ammonia and carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide).
Ammonia is a decomposition product of feces and urine. In animals it causes diseases of the respiratory tract, mucous membranes, anemia. Carbon monoxide occurs where there is equipment that runs on fuel, gas burners. It causes severe symptoms of poisoning and even coma. In the barn there should be no more than 2 mg per cubic meter. m
How dangerous hydrogen sulfide and dust
Hydrogen sulfide, even in small quantities, prevents the "breathing" of cells, blocking the delivery of oxygen to them. As a result, animals begin tachycardia, a sharp decrease in pressure, apathy, weight loss. In premises where adult animals are kept, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide may be no higher than 10 mg per cubic meter. m. For young stock two times less.
Hydrogen sulphide accumulates due to poor ventilation, sewage, untimely manure and dirty litter.
Harmful and dust. It can be organic and mineral. Causes diseases of the respiratory system, mucous membranes. Dust irritates the eyes, provoking conjunctivitis, and also violates the protective function of the mucous membranes, because of which microbes enter the body.
Deposing on the skin causes itching, irritation and, as a result, skin diseases. In addition, airborne dust reduces the light in the barn.
For the prevention of dust around the barn planted trees and shrubs. Dry cleaning is never carried out in the presence of livestock. Also, the cows themselves are not cleaned in common areas.
Microbiological state of the barn and light
The microclimate in livestock buildings is the content of microbes and fungi in the air. Most often, anthrax, brucellosis, tuberculosis, tetanus, as well as staphylococcus, streptococcus, parasites, E. coli and molds live in the barns. Compared with outdoor air, the concentration of microorganisms here is 50-100 times greater. To combat bacteria, hygienic, sanitary measures for cleaning, ultraviolet disinfection are used.
The amount of light affects the health and productivity of any animals. This is important for rooms where they are kept, be it a barn, a house or a pigsty. Its deficiency disrupts metabolic processes, the digestibility of some trace elements, contributes to the deposition of excess fat.
Animals show the best results with an illumination of 50-100 lux with a daylight duration of 12-18 hours. At the same time, the organization of natural lighting of such intensity is not always possible and expedient (due to the need for a large number of windows), therefore, in practice, artificial light is more often used.
Noise level and ionic composition of air
The amount of ions in the air is directly related to its purity. The more ions, the better. So, in a mountainous area in one cubic centimeter is up to 3 thousand ions. At the same time, in ordinary places where the air is clean, there are about 1 thousand of them, in cities there are very few - 400-100 per cubic centimeter. In premises for livestock the number of ions is two orders of magnitude lower than in the air outside.
However, ions have a positive effect on metabolism, the amount of oxygen in the blood, hormones. They also reduce air pollution by dust and germs. Therefore, artificial aero-ionization is recommended in the barns.
In rooms for cattle, the microclimate also includes the noise level. Acoustic background is created by all surrounding sounds in the aggregate. Because of the noise in cows sleep is disturbed, anxiety and chronic stress occur.
For adult animals, noise with an intensity of no more than 70 decibels is allowed, for calves - 65.
To improve the acoustic background, all noisy mechanisms, if possible, bring it outside the barn, to the shed or other premises; install sound insulation, tractors for cleaning manure and distribution of food is replaced by conveyors. Street noise is muffled by greenery.
Control in the premises for animals
The measurement of microclimate parameters is carried out 3-4 times a month three times a day: early in the morning from 5.00 to 7.00, then from 12.00 to 14.00 and from 19.00 to 21.00. If necessary, the procedure is carried out up to 12 days in a row.
The measurements are made with special devices, choosing 2-3 zones in the barn: the place where the cows lie, where they stand and the territory where the staff is located. The latter is important, since the microclimate is also important in labor protection.
Measured at three points. In the middle of the room, then in two corners, located diagonally. From the end walls the distance should be 3 m, from the longitudinal 1 m.
Measured at a level of 0.6 and 1.5 m from the floor in rooms for adult livestock, in calves - by 0.3, then 0.7 and 1.5 m. Illumination, the amount of gases and microorganisms, temperature, humidity, intensity are taken into account noise.
The measurements are made with different devices that are arranged so that they are not exposed to the direct light of the sun, drafts, heat from the batteries, or cold air from the walls or ventilation.
As we see, the microclimate of premises for cattle is of great importance for animal husbandry. Favorable environment improves the development of young, increases weight gain, immunity, productivity of cows, increases the duration of their active life. A bad microclimate, on the contrary, is fraught with serious losses for the enterprise.
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