The hardy Altai breed of horses gave rise to many new species. For centuries, the local harsh climate has helped animals temper their character and adapt to harsh conditions. As a result, they became strong, capable of hard work in mountainous terrain. Thanks to working and other qualities, Altai horses are often used in breeding. Based on them, a new breed was bred with improved parameters. Read about this and more.
The ancestors of the Altai horses had a large build. This fact is confirmed by the horse remains found by archeologists dating back to 3 c. BC.
Serious attempts to improve the species followed in the 18-19 centuries. To good health, strength and endurance managed to inculcate additional skills. Horses have become docile and more workable. Learned to walk under the saddle and in harness. They became easy to manage.
It is known that until 1948, the breed had a different name - Oirot. Enhanced selection of purebred stallions unfolded in the 20th century.
They began to cross with representatives of the English and Arabian breeds. Males turned out big and powerful, but with the same unpretentiousness of the Altaians.
For the reproduction of meat and milk, Altai horses were crossed with Russian, Lithuanian and Soviet (heavy) breeds.
At the beginning of the 21st century, a new, improved breed appeared - the new-Altai "Chumysh". It is described below.
Today, Altaians in their pure form are found only in the far corners of the Altai mountain areas.
In the description of the species has its own characteristics, formed on the background of the climatic conditions of the Altai:
- Short stature of horses and mares - height at withers is about 140 cm. Stallions are 5-6 cm higher and higher than mares.
- Body length up to 140 cm.
- Average weight 330 kg.
- Thorax circumference 160-165 cm.
- The diameter of the foot near the hoof - 19 cm.
- Slender not long legs.
- Strong hooves that do not shoe - thanks to mountain dwelling.
- Thick, beautiful mane and tail - "business card" horses.
- Wool: thick and thick in cold winter, thinner in summer.
- Profile - straight.
- The back is elongated.
- Loins - strong.
- The head is medium in size, the neck is strong.
- Suits: black and bay, red, chubar and chubar.
The herd content of improved species allows to grow large representatives, who already weigh two years to 420 kg, and to three weigh up to 600 kg. Meat animals are the heaviest - up to 620 kg.
In the autumn and spring, the Altai horse quickly recovers in the body. In summer mares have a lot of milk - about 10 liters per day.
Characteristic and physical features
The main characteristic and physical feature - horses have supernatural endurance. Perfectly endure the content in the herd, and the Altai winters do not care for them.
Local horse farms create farms for selected representatives of the species, with further improvement of the breed. The Altai type of specialization is wide:
- rider - for riding;
- for the agricultural sector - plowing and other work on the land;
- meat and dairy;
- pack - indispensable for the transport of heavy loads (up to 200 kg) over long distances along mountain passes.
The representative of the Altai breed - a real gift for the owner. This is a 100% workhorse. Let's continue the list of advantages:
- Hardworking - she is considered an excellent employee, she learns easily and quickly becomes part of the team.
- Calm - a good animal tied to its owner.
- Brave - a herd animal will not run away from wolves, but will definitely discourage the foal, without waiting for human help.
- There is no rancor.
- Meek, peace-loving.
- Even children can safely ride a horse or a horse - animals always make contact and love communication.
The simplicity of the Altai horses makes possible their year-round maintenance in the meadows and fields. In the summer, the animals feed on succulent grass, in winter they forage from under the snow with the help of special brushes on their hooves. Weatherproof hiding in the thickets of forests or rocks.
Health and Basics
Altai horses have naturally good health. Over the centuries, animals have been able to adapt to the frosty winters and hot summer period. Despite this, animals may have problems with the skeleton, joints and muscles.
With poor care, Altai horses run the risk of getting skin diseases. With a long stay in the cold and poor diet, pneumonia is possible. Heart disease, fainting.
You can avoid problems if you take care of the animals properly: observe the conditions of detention and fully feed them.
Feed must meet the time of year and the requirements of this breed. In summer, horses have enough natural food growing in the fields and meadows. You can diversify the diet with apples, potatoes, carrots, mineral supplements. For the winter you need to stock up on hay, oats, silage, vitamin and mineral supplements.
Do not give dirty products or moldy. Failure to comply with the regime leads to negative consequences and stress. It is forbidden to feed the horses before work, otherwise they have malfunctions in the digestive tract.
Water should be abundant - up to 40 liters per day. Drink not give just before eating. In cold weather, the liquid must be warm.
Animals should be regularly shown to the vet.
Little about breeding
In Altai, there are all conditions for breeding thoroughbred horses. This is an abundance of natural food growing in the territories of the region. The ability to keep animals in herds on the pasture year-round, which minimizes costs.
When breeding are selected the best producers of this species.
Breeders of purebred Altai horses breed them mainly in the south of Altai.
In the central and northern parts dominate the Don breeds. They develop rapidly and reach up to 500 kg, if they were grown only in herds. When crossing the Altai type with the heavyweights, stallions weighing up to 550 kg are obtained.
The smallest and lowest individuals are bred in the east of the region. Wild Altaians also live there - clean, not crossed with anyone.
In the Ongudai region, this species is improved by crossing with the Kuznetsky.
Some horse farms improve the appearance of purebred horses. For example, they revive a horse with a chubar (spotted) suit. A rare color has been described in local ancient epos. Horses of this color are a peculiar symbol of Altai culture.
Altai is a breed often used in breeding. It plays an important role in crossbreeding, bringing the most important qualities: stamina, ability to work long and hard, docility, fast learning.
When Altaians cross with other breeds, the new species show all the advantages of the first.
Particularly noteworthy is the New Altai or Charysh breed of meat, the breeding of which began in the 20s of the 20th century. Horse breeders considered a shortcoming of the shortness of the Altai breed and sought to solve this problem. It was a purely commercial interest.
Initially used heavy trucks and Kuznetsk species. In those years, the new racers were in high esteem, they were used in the Red Army.
Already in the 50s, Budenovsk, Don, Russian heavy horses, Vladimir and Lithuanian stallions were taken for crossing. At the same time, the first experiments were carried out on the breeding of dairy and meat species.
In the late 70s, Altai zootechnicians began to work closely on the meat variety. Work went on at once in several farms of Altai. Mares were crossed with Lithuanian, Russian and Soviet stallions.
The formation of a new breed
By crossing different varieties and combining breeding groups, equestrian zootechnicians were able to achieve improvements in the physical and productive aspects of the new breed.
In horses, important qualities were individually sought out. At the same time, breeders tried to maintain their adaptability to pasture maintenance throughout the year, the ability to quickly gain weight after winter.
As a result, by the 80s, animals appeared that gave hope for the establishment of a new breed. In 2000, the State Commission of the Russian Federation included the new-Altai breed in the register of breeding achievements, allowing them to be widely used.
Exterior new look
The following parameters correspond to the description of the stallions of the New Altai species:
- trunk length up to 170 cm;
- height at withers to 157 cm (higher than Altai);
- chest girth up to 200 cm;
- hoof diameter - up to 23 cm.
- live weight of a stallion - up to 625 kg.
- large chest;
- wide, strong back and loin;
- strong muscular legs and croup.
Mares also stand out:
- body length up to 162 cm;
- height - up to 150 cm;
- chest girth - up to 195 cm;
- hoof diameter - up to 20 cm;
- weight - up to 570 kg.
Do mares correctly folded body. The head is slightly rough, the neck with muscles, a broad chest, developed back and loins, croup and legs.
Features of the New Altai View
Novoaltay breed is unique. It is the only one on the planet, bred in difficult climatic conditions. According to its parameters, the view corresponds to the elite class.
In recent decades, the Novo-Altai horse has become a pride, a pearl of the entire Altai Territory.
The breed is based on the six best genealogical lines. Horses have large dimensions, while all year round bred on pastures in herds. They have a live weight and size that exceeds the dimensions of other horse breeds from Altai by 90-110 kg. Possess excellent meat qualities.
The best qualities of the ancestors were concentrated in the New Altai breed: from the Altaians - endurance and adaptation to the harsh climate and content in the herds, and from heavy weights - weight, strong muscles.
Thanks to getting cheap horse meat, heavy cargo transportation, work in harness and saddle, profitability indicators reach 300%. The practice of milking shows promising results for the development of kumys production.
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