To assess the productivity and breeding characteristics of cows, cattle grading is carried out. Due to the fact that it is possible to earn good money in your farm only on a pedigree herd, and this event is being held. The process involves the selection of the best representatives of the cattle, to create a good breeding and maintenance of livestock. In this article we will tell you about the proper organization of the procedure, which guarantees a truly profitable business.
Key indicators considered in the assessment
There are general criteria by which representatives of the herd are evaluated:
- origin (parents) and breed;
- milk productivity (fat content), milk yield;
- appearance, constitution;
- quality of offspring;
- the ability of cows to machine milking;
- possibility of reproduction.
As a rule, the appraisal of cattle is carried out on farms several times during the year. Each cow undergoes a lifelong evaluation procedure - from young age to final culling.
According to the special "Instructions for grading", which is developed separately for all types of animals, points are given for the basic indicators. Their sum is an argument when creating a herd of breeding cows and calves, determines the belonging to it of cattle. From what gender, purpose and age, the assessment plan for cattle may vary.
How is the procedure
For the valuation assessment, the farm zootechnician draws up a schedule where he distributes cows for visual inspection and assessment of the cattle exterior.
The initial stage in the process is the separation of the herd, weighing each cattle, checking inventory numbers. The analysis is carried out to what extent dairy animals are adapted to machine milking, the number of milk yield and the percentage of fat content in milk is estimated.
In addition to the zoo-engineer, the commission on appraisal may also include veterinarians, foremen, farm workers, and insemination specialists. Sometimes they invite researchers who are well versed in the breed.
When grading calves, the live weight of animals, the exterior and their genotype are taken into account, since breed reproduction is the most important task and the main goal of the whole process. The best of the bulls are gaining eighty points and become representatives of the elite record.
Dividing the herd according to individual characteristics
According to the results of a thorough assessment, where the special features of each animal are taken into account, the herd is divided into the main composition, called breeding, repair group (calves for replenishment) and the sold part of the young individuals, as well as culled cattle and a small part of the cows for future separation.
The most important attention is paid to the representatives of the breeding unit, which serve to fill the main group of the livestock and get young individuals, so-called repair heifers. They must be kept in the best conditions, with good care and feeding, must comply with the requirements of the first class, their number can not be less than twenty-five pieces per hundred head of cattle every year.
Replacement youngsters in the herd constitute offspring, from direct representatives of the breeding core, they can be assessed from the age of ten months.
The selection of repair heifers and bulls is made when they reach maturity and readiness for reproduction. When evaluating, they are assigned personal numbers and in the future, they need good care and maintenance to maintain the appropriate live weight.
The group of young stock for sale is intended for sale per tribe, and its price is determined by the breed and is confirmed by special documentation. Trade pedigree young stock can be one of the main income items of the entire economy.
How is the breed of cows determined
Breed of cattle is a group of animals bred artificially, with similar signs of appearance (exterior), productivity (quantity and quality of milk yields), mass of cattle.
According to the currently valid "Instructions for grading", you can install the breed, based on the documentation on the origin of cattle and mandatory inspection. Thus, animals can be formally divided into: purebred specimens and hybrids.
Pure breed involves birth from members of the same breed or from purebred relatives (maternal).
One species of breed may include individuals born:
- by mating two mono-species representatives;
- with absorbing crosses, from the fourth offspring;
- descendants of the third generation;
- in the case of breeding or improving a new breed using representatives of the world gene pool.
The breeding value of dairy cows is assessed by the main criterion - the productivity of the milk produced, that is, the volume and quality of milk yield, fat content, the content of valuable substances in it and the reproductive abilities of cattle.
Evaluation of dairy cows
To determine the productivity of adult dairy cows, milk yield data is taken for the last three, first heifers - for one, and females with two calves in the past - for the last two lactations. The value of milk yield is estimated, how much the Burenka is adapted to machine milking, how much protein is contained in milk. It also calculates the average amount of fat in the product for 305 days and compares with the indicators of the breeding class 1 representatives. The data are taken from the recorded records of milkings, which should be carried out on the farms monthly.
According to the results of the rating of these indicators, the cow earn points - up to 60. According to the collected amount, the class of cattle from the third to the elite record is calculated. Additional points are charged for the exterior of the animal and its constitution - up to 24 and up to 16 - for the genotype and belonging to the breed.
Thus, an exhibition of dairy cows can only be represented by individuals who have passed the rating and have gained a total of one hundred points. There are also additional bonuses, for example, if the milk yield is 140% of the minimum breed level, the cow is classified as class A.
Criteria for assessing beef cattle breeds
Representatives of meat breeds are estimated by external data from the first month. There are 5 categories for analyzing the condition of the young, compliance with excellent results implies the correct development of the skeleton, the shape of the hooves, vertebral bones and joints, and the good development of the chest.
When testing adult representatives of cattle, species and productive traits, skeleton development, skeleton and muscle volume are examined. For bulls there are special requirements for the constitution, head position, chest condition, adipose tissue and body weight.
Thus, the main purpose of cattle grading is to identify and objectively evaluate productivity: in the case of dairy heifers, the volume and quality of milk production, for meat gobies, the exterior, constitution, and muscle mass.
Breeding stock and importance of assessment
At the end of the appraisal in the farm, a thorough analysis of the livestock should be made and the individuals who received the highest score are separated to form a breeding herd. Since natural selection occurs in the herd all the time (diseases, infertility, old age), it is necessary to keep strict records of livestock and to carry out valuation at least once a year.
Special attention should be paid to the young brood brood. It will be the young stock that will be the basis of the breeding herd of your farm, and perhaps in the future it will become your pride and the key to a good income.
The organization of exhibitions of breeding breeds is carried out with the assistance of the best individuals, who, by the results of regular appraisals, scored the highest score. Therefore, do not forget about the importance of this process in your household.
We hope that our instructions on grading will help you to increase the profitability of your subsidiary farm.
If the article was helpful to you, please post it.
If you have experience in testing cattle, write about it in the comments.