To do business on the cows, you must have economic vein, which may be inherent not only to the villager, but also urban. It is enough just to carefully consider the issue and take advantage of the experience of other people who can give valuable advice. Dairy products have always enjoyed and will be in demand. Given the fact that in the country after the imposition of sanctions, the demand for Russian milk is not yet satisfied, you have every chance to make your enterprise successful.
Choosing a place for the farm
When choosing a land plot, the farmer needs to plan the approximate location of future buildings, its area should be at least 1000 square meters.
On the site it is desirable to place a barn for cattle, a summer pen for cattle, outbuildings for storing feed and harvesting equipment. A big plus will be the proximity of the meadows, where animals can graze in the warm season.
Sometimes they sell plots with everything necessary for a farm: premises, pastures, barns. Not bad when buying to ask about the features of the territory from the locals, as sometimes sellers of the land are silent about the negative aspects.
When all the questions have been clarified, you can begin the process of concluding an agreement or a lease with the district administration.
Now is the time to move on to the practical and most important stage of the question, how to open a farm and where to start.
Room and equipment
For good housekeeping in order to make a good profit,
you must find or build a properly equipped room, warm and clean, with a reasonable layout, water, stalls and cattle feeders, calf houses.
In addition, it should be borne in mind that the dairy farm requires a more spacious room, in calculating the content of heifers and calves together after calving, a compartment for storing milk and milking equipment.
For a complete set of the barn for 50 milk cows, it will take about 2-2.5 million rubles.
Even more costly item of expenditure at the opening of the farm - the purchase of agricultural equipment and machinery. Milking equipment, machinery for harvesting feed, plows, harrows, seeders and, if possible, at least one tractor, to perform the most urgent tasks. Costs - about 1 million rubles.
Most often, the complete economic development takes place in 5-10 years, because most of the farmers do this in stages.
Dairy cattle purchase
Expenses for animals depend on whether you give preference when purchasing an adult dairy cow (2-3 calves), the cost of which will be at least 60 thousand rubles or a heifer from three months worth 10-15 thousand rubles. Consider the fact that the young individual will need to be grown for about a year, that is, to incur additional expenses for the purchase of feed and care.
According to statistics, the maintenance of one head of cattle costs the farmer about 4,630 rubles per month. You can easily make a calculation of how much you will spend on a herd of 50 heads - 231500 rubles.
Of course, if you buy young stock, it will save a lot, but it will postpone your milk supply plans by about a year. In the case of buying 50 milk cows, you will spend about 3 million rubles.
Thus, when we open a dairy farm, taking into account the above calculations, the primary costs will be from 6 million rubles.
Other maintenance costs
There are fixed costs that we will bear from year to year:
- employee benefits;
- veterinary care;
- purchase feed.
- repair work;
The most profitable option of the tax system is a single agricultural tax, according to which you will pay 6% of the profits.
In addition to wages to employees, you will have to pay an additional 30% of insurance contributions to the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation and the FSF on a monthly basis, subject to formal employment.
Veterinary services are necessary for the sale of finished products, these costs should also be taken into account when planning the budget, they will amount to 1,000–2,000 rubles per head of livestock.
On average, one cow eats feeds worth about 15 thousand rubles a year. Savings in this case, it is possible to independently grow part of the diet of cattle.
Repair of the premises, expenses for fuel and lubricants, unforeseen breakdowns - for such cases include 150-200 thousand rubles a year as an expense item.
The result - about 1 900 000 rubles per year for the maintenance of the farm.
Dairy Farm Income
When studying a dairy farm as a business, the search for stable sources of product sales is primary, because the profitability of the business will depend on it. It is necessary to look for customers, and the focus here should be on processing enterprises. In this case, the ideal option would be a dairy plant or a large retail chain that purchases products in large quantities and prepaid. Small businesses and stores may turn out to be fickle buyers and not always solvent.
A good example of increasing profitability is the purchase of processing equipment for milk and the production of cottage cheese, sour cream and other products. Low cost due to its raw materials makes it possible to earn good money.
On average, from one cow we have about 5000 liters of milk per year. With 50 heads in the farm and an average price of 15 rubles per 1 liter, it turns out 3,750,000 rubles a year. After deducting the cost of maintaining the farm, on average, your accounts will be about 1,850,000 rubles a year in net income.
The need to account for livestock
In order to successfully run a business, the farm must be under your complete control in terms of the livestock population. You need to keep an analytical record of livestock in a special journal. This should be done for an accurate calculation of the offspring and, for example, to know what the calves yield per 100 cows, as well as to calculate how many heads were purchased, sold or slaughtered for meat.
Keeping such a journal will help you calculate how much you can earn from your current livestock and increase your earnings.
Logs and forms of accounting of cattle are primary documents for daily management, competent management and accurate counting of cattle on a dairy farm.
Below is the journal form for keeping records of the number of cattle heads:
You can use this sample to order a magazine in a print shop.
Today, the demand for milk and dairy products is consistently high, their consumption will grow in the future, as they are always popular. Cows and bulls, as a business, is a very profitable occupation, which has both advantages and serious risks.
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