High productivity of cows is a prerequisite for the successful development of the farm. Cattle is used to produce milk, meat, hides and by-products. Manure in farms is used as cheap organic fertilizer. Blood is used in medicine. The skin is used to make leather. Souvenirs are made of horns and hooves, mineral supplements are made of bones, and milk and meat are basic foodstuffs. Cattle productivity indicators outperform the estimated characteristics of other animals.
Methods and assessment of the accounting of milk productivity of animals
Breeding of highly productive cows is one of the most profitable livestock breeding areas. Dairy products are in great demand all over the world - to meet all needs, you need to produce more milk. Progressive farms devote a lot of effort and attention to the scientific approach to animal care.
Evaluation of cows by their own productivity is a quantitative and qualitative characteristic of milk production for a certain period of time. Not only the displacement is checked, but also the density, as well as the percentage of fat in it.
Breeding breeders are engaged in assessing the quality of offspring bulls.
The productivity of milk in highly productive cows is not constant. It depends on the breed of animal, heredity, age, physical condition of the individual, dietary habits, as well as conditions of detention.
Milk yield is highly dependent on the lactation period. About two months before the birth of the calf, the milking of the cow stops. Therefore, 305 days is the optimal time period for lactation. More information on this topic can be found in the article "Factors affecting the milk production of a cow."
Examples of mathematical calculations of cattle yield
The productivity of cows is estimated daily, every ten days or monthly. The most accurate method is to control milked milk every day, the most common method is once every 10 days. For example, a control unit of a certain individual can be made on 2.12 and 22 of the month. The mass of the obtained product is multiplied by 10 - it turns out the displacement per decade. In total, these three values are an indicator of the milk productivity of an individual cow per month.
When nursing young animals, the productivity of cows is estimated as follows: half of the udder is sown, and the second part is sucked by calves. The weight of milk produced is multiplied by two and get a lot of full milk yield.
Highly productive cows produce up to 30,000 kg of milk during the lactation period.
Milk productivity of cattle is highly dependent on age. Young animals gradually increase the milk yield to the third calving, then for about three years the amount of milk remains the same, and after the sixth calving the indicators gradually decrease. Therefore, it is more rational to use dairy cattle for about ten years. And only highly productive cows are exploited longer.
According to the estimated characteristics of the daughters' milk and meat productivity of the sons, they assess the bull-producer by the quality of the offspring. Males are assigned categories and classiness.
Exterior features of dairy breeds
When evaluating the exterior, experts recommend paying close attention to the shape of the udder. It is bowl-shaped, goat and round. In highly productive cows, it has the shape of a bowl, the nipples are wide apart, all lobes are evenly developed. Such a structure will allow the use of machine milking. The distance from the bottom of the udder to the ground should be about half a meter.
Animals with conical or cylindrical nipples are suitable for machine milking, their length and base width should be about 8 cm. The dairy breeds have a small, elongated head. The withers are high and straight - in strong animals, and sharp - in case of muscular weakness. The limbs are strong, the joints are well defined, the hooves moderately developed.
The exterior of cows is the external expression of the constitution, associated with the breed and physical condition of the animal.
Basics of beef and veal production
Breeding cattle for meat is another profitable livestock area. Beef is considered a dietary product. Due to the high nutritional properties and iron content, it is prescribed to people after surgery and children. Proven - beef meat neutralizes the hydrochloric acid of gastric juice.
Meat productivity of cattle is assessed by quantitative and qualitative characteristics:
- slaughter weight (weight of cut carcass and fat);
- live weight (morning weight of the cow before feeding);
- slaughter yield (the percentage of carcass mass to the weight of a living individual);
- meat (biological value; the ratio of connective tissue, fat and bones).
These data are needed to assess the quality of the offspring bulls.
When breeding animal meat breeds, special attention is paid to succulent feeds. When an unbalanced diet not only decreases the productivity of cows, but also deteriorates the quality of the meat produced. For comparison: a well-fed bull for slaughter had a weight of 411 kg, a carcass weighing 221 kg was obtained, the bone content was 18.4%. The goby of the same age and breed, with a poor content, weighed 225 kg, the slaughter weight was 106 kg, and the bones — 22.4%.
The article "Meat Productivity of Cattle" more fully reveals all the factors affecting the productivity of meat.
The broad back, barrel chest, thick neck and low wide withers are the main parameters of the appearance of meat cows. The udder is weakly developed, the head is small, the butt is straight and wide. Eye evaluation provides an overview of the animal. For better characteristics, the cow is measured with special tools.
Principles of breeding cattle breeding
According to the quality of the offspring, the assessment of manufacturing bulls is done in order to determine the breeding value of the animal according to the properties that the offspring inherits. On those farms where breeders are not lazy to engage in selective selection, the herd is also improving faster. Genomic evaluation of sires can be trusted more than pedigree. Experience shows that the more offspring is estimated, the more specific and accurate the data is. In dairy cattle breeding, for a qualitative genetic characterization of a father, an estimate of 10-40 daughters is necessary.
One sire gives a herd a thousand times more quality offspring than a female. In highly productive cows, 8-10 bulls and heifers are born in their entire life. And from the male producer, the offspring can be about 50 thousand individuals.
Breeding bull - the pride of the farm
There is no doubt that genetic influence is the same on both the paternal and maternal sides. However, males are selected more strictly than cows. They have clearer requirements. Therefore, the improvement of the population occurs precisely at the expense of the producer's father. No wonder they say that the bull is half the herd.
A comprehensive assessment of cattle in terms of productivity, genotype, exterior, live weight and constitution is called “grading”. In evaluating dairy breed males, besides the sign of milkiness of daughters, the number of problem calving and viability of calves are taken into account.
In beef cattle for bonitovki fathers look at the performance of sons. Assessment of the offspring is based on growth intensity up to 15 months of age, feed costs, carcass weight, percentage of bones and meat. For objectivity, slaughter more than three bulls.
Assessment of the breeding value of the male by the method of "daughter-peers" implies the percentage characteristics of the bull, by comparing the productivity of daughters and their peers.
In the breeding work, the formula F.F. Eisner: P = (D / C) x 100, where:
P - tribal value of the manufacturer;
D - the average productivity of daughters;
C - the average productivity of peers.
This method compares the morphological and physiological properties of the offspring of the bull with similar individuals in the herd.
According to the results of the appraisal, the producer bull is assigned a category. Elite-record - the highest class of cattle producers. Bad males are culled so as not to spoil the genome of the herd. During the life of each animal is evaluated several times.
The basic principles of bonding
Bonding is an annual zootechnical event, without which breeding work in the herd is impossible. According to the instructions, the animals are rated on a 100-point scale:
- for milk production - up to 60 points;
- for exterior and constitution - up to 24 points;
- for the genotype - up to 60 points.
Before starting the appraisal, a zoo-technician studies the pedigree of an animal. Cattle with parents of the same breed is considered purebred. Then, the cow’s milk productivity, milk yield, fat content and milk density are examined. At the third stage, the exterior is assessed. Breed signs must be clearly defined. In the final assessment, the data obtained are analyzed and the category and grade of the individuals being checked are assigned.
Under the influence of selection, it is possible to achieve an improvement in herd productivity at the genetic level. This method is more effective than just improving the conditions and nutrition of cows. Therefore, the assessment of all types of livestock productivity is a necessary zootechnical measure in animal husbandry.
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