In a large farm, the electrification of a barn for 200 animals can be difficult if decisions are made without a good calculation base. The restructuring of the old premises, designed for a large number of livestock, takes place in stages. But, despite the advantages of such a power supply system, in Russia the level of automation in the industry is very low. Due to the illiterate organization of power supply, expensive equipment fails, and the farm suffers losses. From the article you will learn how to prevent this.
Redevelopment of pens, and what is meant by it
Cultivation on the farm is possible only if you conduct a comprehensive electrification. This means that the maximum number of objects in the barn should be electrified and work in automatic mode. But we should not ignore the organization of labor - it plays an important role in progressive agriculture.
Such an approach effectively showed itself in the conversion of barns and pigsties. Also effectively used in the stables and other areas of animal husbandry. Rebuilding the premises where animals are kept helps the farm to reach a new level, increase the quantity and improve the quality of the products.
The basis of the barn's power supply is the use of electricity in various areas of the farm. For high efficiency, it is necessary to transfer the maximum number of processes to automation. A special place in this scheme is given to the organization of heating, microclimate and lighting.
Technological processes requiring energy costs
In the organization of the power supply of the barn, it is important to correctly identify areas for equipment. For the calculation to be correct, and the farm was working for profit, you need to determine the most economical, but technically reliable options.
Projects for the construction or restructuring of barns include the following areas of work that require electricity:
- feed distribution;
- the organization of watering;
- milking and initial processing of the products obtained;
- ventilation system;
- heating scheme;
- manure pumping;
- provision of hot water.
It is from these processes that the quality and level of the products produced depends. An approximate calculation, which is shown below, shows that on electrified farms labor efficiency increases, and production costs are reduced.
Auto-feeding systems are divided into two types: stationary and mobile. In large barns use fixed installations mounted above the feeders. The choice of such devices is carried out according to a number of parameters: the length of the line, the number of heads served and the power consumption.
For feeding cattle numbering 200 heads, you can choose a feeder PK-50, which has two distribution lines. The length of the dispenser is 75 m, and the level of electricity consumed is 9 kW per hour.
The daily feed intake per cattle is 28 kg. Multiply 28 by 200 and get 5600 kg - this should be the capacity of the feeder to serve a large farm. When operating for 6 hours a day, 54 kW of electricity will be consumed.
Details about the types and selection of automatic type drinking trough, you can learn from our article "Automatic drinking trough for a cow." Today we will talk about the electrical costs of such equipment, and what needs to be taken into account when calculating energy costs and why they should be produced at all.
To fill the autodrinker for a large herd, you need a powerful pump. A good option for such equipment is the ECV model 6-4-90, which supplies from 3 to 6 cubic meters / hour. The pump is equipped with a powerful engine PEDV 2-140. Its power is 2 kW.
To determine how much electricity will be consumed, it is necessary to make the following calculation: find out how much liquid is needed to provide 200 heads. One cow consumes 65 liters of water per day. Multiplying by 200, we find that 13,000 liters or 13 cubic meters are needed per day for a large barn. In an hour, the avtopilka averages 4.5 cubic meters. m of water, therefore, 13 cu. m we get in 3 hours.
Electricity consumption per hour - 2 kW. This means that during the day the auto-drinker consumes 6 kW of electricity.
We save on staff
Manure transporters can maximize service 100-110 stalls. On this basis, the calculation is carried out on several transporters. For a barn for 200 heads, TSN-160 manure disposal will be suitable. It is equipped with an inclined and horizontal conveyor.
Inclined conveyor provides the possibility of loading manure into a vehicle for subsequent removal from the farm. Such a device consumes 5.5 kW per hour when cleaning cattle stalls. It is difficult to make an exact calculation of how much electricity is spent when the manure-cleaning system is working, since for this it is necessary to know exactly how much feces come into the litter per day.
Adult cattle, heifers and bullheads, produce 35-40 kg of manure per day. Calves - only 10 kg. Productivity of the TSN-160 conveyor - 4.5 tons per hour. Knowing this data, you can easily calculate how much energy the installation will consume. Interestingly, only one person is required to maintain the conveyor. So you can significantly save on staff.
Automation of the milking process
Milking cows is one of the most labor-intensive processes on the farm, which is why its automation is so important. One automatic milking machine AMD-8 can serve up to 200 heads in the barn, which reduces the cost of manual labor, and increases the productivity of the farm. 4 operators are enough to work with AMD-8.
But, what is the cost of power supply for such an installation? To answer the question, you can make a simple calculation. The power of the device is 150 W per hour when servicing one cow. The milking process takes an average of 6 minutes. Dividing 60 minutes by 6, we get that in an hour the milking machine receives milk from 10 cows.
We believe that in a herd of 200 cows requiring milking - in practice, this number is less, since young heifers and cows that are in the last months of pregnancy are not counted. We divide 200 by 10 and see that the device will cope with the task in 20 hours. In fact, the milking of cattle occurs at the same time, we take this calculation for convenience.
We multiply 20 by 150 and get that 3 kW is consumed for one milking. In total, the bodies are milked 3 times a day, so that it takes up to 9 kW per day to automate milk milking.
On dairy farms, it is impossible to do without a cooling plant, which allows you to save the product before transporting it to the milk processing shop. The milking machine AMD-8 is part of this installation. Its continuation is AID-2 - an installation that not only cools the milk, but also allows to obtain a quality product without any impurities.
Power cooling and cleaning installation 750 watts per hour. In one milking, she can work with 10 cows, and in our herd 200 cows, so we need 20 milkings. One milking lasts 6 minutes, but it will take 120 minutes or 2 hours to our herd. Multiply 2 by 750 and get 1.5 kW for one milking of the whole herd. During the day, the installation of AID-2 consumes 4.5 kW.
For all legal entities that receive the services of a power plant in the first, standard category, the cost of one kW is 4.7 rubles. Knowing this, we can easily calculate how much electricity will cost us any service and the entire barn.
Calculation of the cost of ventilation
If you have a large farm, then most likely you use the tethered method of cattle keeping. Then a great role is played by the ventilation of pens, especially in the winter period. If you do not take care of the fresh air to the cows, this will lead to diseases, a decrease in milk yield and a deterioration of fertility.
For the organization of the ventilation system, exhaust devices and inlet models are used. To order such a complex is only available from reliable manufacturers who provide you with drawings and calculations for electrical costs. We take, for example, the DeLaval DF 1300, in order to practice dispel the myth of the high cost of the ventilation system.
One installation DF 1300 can serve the room up to 520 square meters. m. Take the average area of the barn - 1500 square meters. Dividing 1500 into 520, we get that for a hangar for 200 heads we need only 3 fans of the type DF 1300. One such fan consumes 0.75 kW per hour. Three fans will consume 2.25 kW per hour, while maintaining indoor conditions for the development of the herd.
Electric heating costs
It is inexpedient to carry out separate ventilation and install heaters; therefore, equalization of temperature conditions at different times of the year occurs through climatic installations. Such fan heaters from the SFOC series have power from 15 to 247.5 kW. The potential difference of the installation depends on the size of the heated room.
On a farm of 200 heads, you can use not the most powerful heater - SFOC-100. With a power of 90 kW, it warms up 6000 cubic meters. m per hour. The advantage of this installation is that it will maintain the desired climate in the stalls and adjust it depending on the weather.
Modern farmers in pursuit of new developments, forget about the secrets of animal husbandry. Thus, the use of an infrared lamp will increase the level of heat in the room, and its light is more useful for animals than the light from an ordinary light bulb.
Infrared light can compensate for the lack of heat in calf pens, so as not to reconfigure the climate system. This is useful if the barn uses one panel to regulate the climate system.
When organizing the barn electricity supply, it is important to take care of the safety of its inhabitants. To do this, on farms install UVEP - grounding system, or a device for equalizing electrical potentials. The number of earthing depends on the level of livestock in the herd.
In each animal's stall, a VEB is installed, which is located near its front or hind legs, depending on which side of the electric circuit the potential of zero is located.
But the installation UVEP can not completely protect the animals. In order for the current not to harm the flock, the grounding system must be well thought out. Areas with electrical wiring should be separated by a layer of floor having a higher resistivity.
Reliable grounding means is a waterproofed foundation or blind area around a barn made of concrete or asphalt.
In order for such a grounding system to become effective, the blind area must be impregnated with oil products. For every 10 meters, about 2-3 liters.
Rooms subject to current protection
There is a strict regulation, where all the rooms are prescribed in which the installation of CEA is required. The grounding system must be performed:
- in all stalls of adult animals;
- in the compartments of young stock;
- in insulators and other pens of individual content.
If we are talking about loose housing for livestock, then the CEA is installed only near metal structures - a grounding radius of 2 m. Grounding is the area of the location of metal structures with which an animal can come in contact. Such areas include locations of avtopoilok, pipelines, fences.
If the animals feed in the meadow, then it makes sense to install the CEEC only if there are electric elements on pastures, such as electric drills. In this case, the grounded space is surrounded by a ring ground. It is laid to a depth of 0.66-0.88 m, depending on the radius of the CEE.
Those farmers who have gone through this process can best tell about the benefits of barn electricity supply.
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