Business of breeding cows for milk


Since ancient times, cattle breeding helped a person to survive, and raising cows for milk was the most important activity of the peasants. Production of cattle has become the basis for the production of a variety of products that still make up the diet of entire nations and are the business cards of individual countries. Unique cheeses, butter, cottage cheese, sour cream, healthy drinks and mixes are made from cow's milk. They do not lose their relevance, since they are of special value for the human body.

Collecting initial information before registering farming activities

From the very beginning, all the nuances should be analyzed, since the occupation of animal husbandry requires a serious, thoughtful approach. Dilution and maintenance of dairy cattle is possible in the presence of certain land resources. To increase the productivity of animals, they need to be kept on a combined type: in a stall and on pasture. Therefore, the presence of a nearby farm grassy meadows will become a reliable base for breeding cows for milk as a business.

The existence of farms in the region that do business on dairy cows should be carefully examined. It is better to stay away from competitors.

The most important point is to obtain information on the sale of dairy products. It is advisable to work out in advance the possibilities of cooperation with dairy processing enterprises, wholesale buyers of milk, to find retail outlets.

Only then can individual entrepreneurship (IP) be issued using the "animal husbandry" code, choosing the most profitable taxation system.

Features of the correct formation of a herd of dairy cows

Before setting up the barn, the pens should be familiar with the varieties of breeds of cattle. At the same time, it is necessary to carefully study the individual advantages of each type of cow, the peculiarities of their maintenance at different times of the year.

When choosing the best breeds for breeding dairy herds, you need to focus on the following issues:

  • how fast the calf grows;
  • what is the average animal performance over the years;
  • how stable is the function of annual reproduction of offspring;
  • Are the cows healthy, what is their weight and body size?
  • how quickly individual cattle adapt to changing conditions of detention.

The individuals most suitable for the dairy herd should have a barrel-shaped body, an elongated head with small horns. Their back is characterized by the absence of excess bends, straight lines. Udder cows, giving a maximum of milk, should be in the form of a bowl or bath of large size and weight. After milking, it is significantly reduced with the formation of elastic folds in its rear part.

Search for a suitable site for animal husbandry

Consideration of a suitable site should be correlated with its size and natural conditions. The herd population directly depends on the territory, since keeping a large number of animals in inappropriate conditions can lead to environmental problems.

From the very beginning it is important to determine the number of milk-producing dairy cows. Based on this, the most optimal land plot is selected.

Calculate the required area based on the needs of one cow. One head requires 0.5-0.75 hectares of grain crops, 0.05-0.07 hectares of root crops, 0.15-0.25 hectares of silage and annual plants, 0.5-0.7 hectares of perennial grasses.

In addition, for regular grazing livestock will need pasture at the rate of 1 ha per animal. The same area of ​​meadows is needed for harvesting hay. Thus, depending on the size of the herd of cows, it is possible to calculate the area of ​​the required territory for the successful development of the livestock business.

How to equip the barn

A good option for housing for dairy cows may be renting an old farm building. It is important to consider its location, since finding a number of fields will facilitate the disposal of manure, which can be used as fertilizer. Finding nearby meadows will provide an excellent opportunity for grazing. Room preparation will require repair and sanitization. First you need to carefully insulate the walls, to equip a high-quality ventilation system.

The dimensions of the building for the maintenance of 10 animals should be approximately 34x6 m. For a comfortable keeping of one dairy cow 2 square meters is enough. On the other hand, the internal space of the barn must have a certain reserve, since it must be borne in mind that calves will appear over time. In addition, utility rooms and warehouses will be needed.

Given all these data, you should equip the individual stalls. In this case, the floors of each compartment should be placed under a slight bias for the flow of cow feces.

On one side of each box you need to place the feeder, and on the other - the door for cleaning manure. Feeders can be both individual and common to all animals. It is desirable to make the supply of water and feed mechanized.

In addition, when cows are raised for the sake of milk production, special milking equipment is used. This is a necessary attribute of an effective dairy farm.

Organization of proper nutrition of animals on a dairy farm

The daily ration should contain hay, silage, flax seeds, fodder beets, potatoes, carrots, mixed feed, which include the necessary vitamins, minerals, about 100 g of salt and plenty of water. The deterioration of the nutrition of the milk cow directly affects the milk yield, taste and fat content.

To obtain high quality milk and maintain high productivity of cows, their varied good nutrition is necessary.

In this case, the basis of nutrition is hay. The average animal eats per day from 9 to 15 kg of dried grass. In addition, it is necessary to add silage and feed to the diet. During the summer grazing season, cow consumption is reduced due to their use of succulent herbs. On average, it is recommended to harvest about 25 tons of hay per year for one individual. The abundance of such feed will only positively affect the productivity of the entire dairy herd.

The necessary staff for the effective work of the farm

Even a small number (10 heads) of dairy cows require constant monitoring. Careful attitude towards animals will prevent the development of various diseases, create conditions for increasing their productivity. Milking 2-3 times a day, walking, feeding, cleaning the top contaminated litter layer, making hay require physical and time consuming. In addition, the sale of dairy products is of great importance.

Thus, the effective work of the farm requires the use of additional workers and equipment. From the very beginning of the business, it is desirable to attract villagers who have relevant experience with cows.

Such vacancies will be required, requiring the following costs in rubles for payment (table):

Such a number of employees will ensure the normal functioning of a small dairy farm.

Home farm expenses

You can start your own dairy farming business from a small farm. After preliminary information gathering and preparation, you will need to purchase 4 heifers and one bull. At the same time for the formation of dairy herd best fit mature individuals and a half years old.

An approximate business plan for breeding black-and-white breed of cows, taking into account the investment of money, will look as follows.

The cost of one heifer is about 12,000, and a bull - 16,000 rubles, so the total cost of purchasing young stock will be 66,000 rubles.

Mandatory vaccination and periodic veterinary examination of cows implies additional cash costs for the year in the amount of 5,000 rubles.

Feeding one animal during the year requires the use of such a quantity of feed at the following ruble prices (table):

Thus, the maintenance of one dairy cow will cost an average of 41,300 rubles per year. Accordingly, 5 animals will cost the owner 206,500 rubles. To ensure regular milking will require a milking machine worth 28,000 rubles. The remaining costs relate to physical and temporal parameters.

Profitability of an individual farm

Considering certain financial investments necessary to start a business, a novice farmer immediately wants to calculate whether it is advantageous to keep cows for milk.

Since the food market requires the availability of always fresh dairy products, it is quite easy to establish sales of farm products. Statistics say that the maintenance of a dairy cow farm can generate more than 1,700,000 rubles a year in income. In this case, you can earn not only on milk, but also on meat, dung, animal skins.

The cost of the goods produced can be increased by arranging a milk processing plant with a packaging line. With its help, it is possible to supply finished products to the market in the form of milk, cottage cheese, cheese, sour cream, and butter inside a convenient, beautiful package.

Thus, the cost of farming of 10 cows will average 1,165,000 rubles. Expansion and improvement of business is guaranteed to increase costs. On the other hand, it will inevitably increase the income of the enterprise.

When you can expect to profit

The first cow mating is recommended at the age of one and a half years. From this time on, every animal in the course of the year brings one cub. The pregnant female bears a calf for 285 days. After this, the lactation period lasts about 300 days. In the first two months after calving, 50% of the milk will be fed to the baby. For these reasons, the first income of the economy can only be expected in the second year of its existence.

The average productivity of a cow is 10 liters per day. Thus, seven cows will give 70 liters. At a cost of 70 rubles per liter, the annual profit only from the sale of raw milk will be 1,788,500 rubles. By expanding production and processing, you can significantly increase the income of the dairy farm.

Thus, breeding dairy breeds of cows will be a profitable business, but one should not expect a quick return from investing material resources.

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