Let's find out what factors make up the milk production of cattle and why consider it. This information is fundamental in the farm business, because the bodies are then grown to sell its products. The amount of milk a cow produces depends on the farm profit. In the article we will tell you what factors influence the yield rates, how productivity is considered, how to increase the yield rates and how to choose a "profitable" cow for your farm.
The first milk in cows appears immediately, as she gives birth to a calf, and from that moment begins the countdown of productivity. Female cattle reaches sexual maturity by the age of 6 months, but at that age her body is still unable to bear the baby and generate food for it.
The first insemination can be carried out at the age of 1.5-2 years - it is then that the heifer will be fully formed. After the cow calves, milk will start to stand out from her. But this product can not be used for food, because it is intended for raising a calf and differs in its composition from ordinary milk.
The composition released from the female in the first days after birth is called colostrum. It is given only to calves. But after a few days, the substrate appears familiar to the human body. From this day and begins to form milk production of cows.
Choosing a cow with a confident gait
The most important factor affecting the milk production of cows is the characteristics of the cow itself. How well you approach the selection process will determine how much product you can sell per year.
You can choose a highly productive chick by the following criteria:
- the udder must be large, and the veins stand out well;
- the legs of the heifer have a great influence on productivity - they must be strong and the gait is confident;
- a buren with a wide and deep breast will give more milk per day than a female with a small sternum;
- the belly should not sag and look flabby;
- the cow’s ribs should not be close to each other, otherwise breathing problems will begin, which will affect productivity;
- bore's skull should be oblong;
- horns - thin and small;
- the base of the tail should not be wide.
These factors will help you to choose a good calf with high productivity, but keep in mind that old animals give less milk than young ones.
Depends on breed and nutrition
The most important factor determining how much milk a cow gives is the type of her breed. It is better to choose milk bodies: Schwyz, red steppe, Kostroma breed.
Do not forget about the age - the most high-calving cows include animals from the third to the ninth calving.
It is important to consider feeding the cattle. Its daily ration should include all the necessary components to maintain the desired balance in the body. Read more about this in the article "Selection of vitamins for calves and cows." Proper feeding, along with timely vaccinations and medical examinations, will help to get the best result on milk yield.
Do not forget about the milking schemes. Over the years, cows have decreased milk production, but by adhering to the rules and patterns of separation, it is possible to maintain high rates for many years.
But all this will not matter if you poorly care for the herd, keep it in unsanitary conditions and do not monitor the health of the cows.
Apply formulas and numbers
Evaluation of the milk productivity of cows includes the number of milkings per lactation, the level of proteins and fats in the resulting product. Measurements are carried out 3 times a month, separately for each heifer. Lactation - the period from calving to insemination.
To account for the milk production of cows, you can use several formulas. To calculate the monthly milk yield, you should add up all daily calf milk yield and multiply them by 30. And to calculate the average milk yield per day, take the amount of total milk produced during the lactation period and divide it by 300 - the average lactation period.
Calculations are carried out on the 5,15th and 25th of each month - this helps to track changes in the milk yield. They are recorded in the account book for better control and predictability.
Daily milk yield indicators
With regards to standard dairy breeds, after the first calving, a cow gives 9-10 liters of milk per day. Over the next years, the milking performance will increase by 0.5-2 liters.
After 5-6 calvings, the heifer can produce up to 15 liters of milk per day. With proper care and feeding rates grow to 20 liters.
But there are some breeds whose daily performance exceeds the yield of other heifers. So, the norm for the Holstein or Yaroslavl breed is 20-40 liters of milk per day. In 1981, Cuba recorded a record milk yield of 107.3 liters. This record belonged to a Holstein breed heifer, mixed with zebu.
But even today there are individual individuals - champions in terms of yields. The most high-performing cow is called Marfa. She lives in the Donetsk Republic and gives 50-60 liters of milk per day - this indicator is not single, and this level of milk yield is constantly maintained.
How much milk a hen will give per year depends on the factors we listed earlier. Much depends on the type of breed. But even more because of the lactation of the chick. So, cows on the first lactation can not give the maximum amount of milk, even if their breed belongs to the dairy type.
The table shows the milk yield of cows of various breeds:
The table shows that the red steppe cow gives the same amount of milk that the Ukrainian white-headed cow only after 7 lactations. It is also worth noting that Kurgan and Kazakh white-headed show low milk yield results even after 8 calving.
It is important to note that cows give milk not all 365 days a year. Speaking about annual milk yield, the lactation period is taken into account, averaging 300 days.
The productivity of milk production can also be affected by the climate of the country where animals are raised. The leaders in the production of cow's milk are Denmark, Israel and the United States. Russia is on the 8th line.
According to data for 2016, the total yield in Russia amounted to 24,031.9 tons per year. The leaders in the dairy industry were: Bashkortostan (5.9%), Tatarstan (5.7%), Altai Krai (4.6%), Krasnodar Krai (4.2%), and the Rostov Region (3.5%).
The impact of the seasons on productivity
In addition to various factors that affect livestock productivity, seasonality must also be taken into account. With summer milking, cows manage to get more milk than in winter. For example, if in summer a heifer produces up to 20 liters of product, in winter this figure drops to 13 liters.
This difference is due to the fact that in the summer, animals receive more vitamins. They are grazed in the meadows, where the cattle feed on fresh grass and get sunbathing. In winter, however, there is a decrease in milk yield due to lack of sun and fresh food.
In winter, you should carefully consider the diet of livestock and do not forget about vitamin complexes. Then, milk yield will not decrease.
Another factor related to the time of year is the calving period. If the cow calved in the autumn, then she will have a lot of milk in the winter.
The most productive breeds
Above, we talked about the fact that the milk production of a heifer depends on the breed. Different types of cows have a significant variation in milk yield. It happens that one individual gives twice more or less milk than the other.
The Holstein breed is considered to be the most highly productive - such a cow gives up to 30 liters of milk per day. The Red Steppe Burenka produces up to 13 liters, which brings it down to the last line in the productivity rating of the heifers. It is necessary to distinguish black-and-white cows, in their performance they are inferior to the Holstein breed. Their yield reaches 28 liters.
Popular are the Ayrshire cows. In the day they give up to 26 liters of milk. The Kholmogory and Yaroslavl breeds are a bit behind the rest, but they are still among the top 10 dairy breeds. Their milk yield reaches 20 liters per day.
If we look at the annual indicators, then the black-and-white cow comes out on top. Along with the Holstein breed, it produces up to 9 tons of milk during the lactation period.
The effect of age on productivity
It is necessary to understand that heifers do not give the same amount of milk throughout life. To calculate how many liters you can expect in the upcoming period of lactation, you need to rely on how many times she had calving, and how early she began to develop. At the very beginning of the sexual way, the animal produces a minimum amount of product. Later, its indicators increase to a maximum, and in adulthood they again fall to a minimum.
This is due to the fact that in cows the secretory work of the mammary glands is directly connected with the reproductive system. The sooner the chick reaches puberty and produces offspring, the sooner the first milk will appear. Depending on how many times she has given birth, you can calculate when the peak of milk production comes.
Maximum milk production is achieved by 8-9 calving. The earlier this period comes, the longer the cow will maintain high rates. The average milking period is 16-18 years.
The relationship of mass and dairy performance
The mass of cows directly affects the performance of milk yields. This is due to the fact that in terms of body weight, the overall development of the heifer is determined. Moderate fatness has a good effect on stamina, which is associated with milk production. The ability to consume the feed needed for dairy production also depends on the level of fatness.
But, despite the fact that the well-fed chicks performance is higher, it is not necessary to overfeed animals. Each breed has its own optimal weight, and when it is exceeded the beast only suffers. Even for slaughter, it is not recommended to overfeed cows, in the dairy industry, overweight can cause only harm.
For milk production, good development of the mammary glands is important. If the heifer has a normal mass, but poorly developed mammary glands, its productivity will be lower than that of a cow of the same breed and with less weight, but with a well-developed lactation system.
Cows are milked only after the first calving. Before that, the lactation system sleeps. But as soon as the cub is born, the reproductive system turns on to provide the baby with food. Duration of cow feeding is small, so after a couple of weeks after birth, you can begin milking.
Speaking of milk yield, it should be noted that the animal's organism perceives milking as a natural process. You can calculate how many times you need to express milk, by how many times the calf feeds - 4 times the first weeks after calving, and 3 times the rest of the lactation period.
The most productive time is the first few months after birth. Then the milk yield begins to fall and by the end of the lactation period disappears completely. To resume lactation, the heifer must give birth again. If you do not take care of this in advance, you will lose the milk for a whole year.
The value of regular milking
It is necessary to milk a cow three times a day: in the morning, in the afternoon and in the evening. Her milk accumulates in the milk tank. It takes up to 15 hours to complete. But full filling is fraught with a decrease in productivity, since the udder stretches and the vessels constrict. If you milk a chick only twice a day, this will lead to an inevitable loss of productivity.
It is important to observe a strict regimen to increase the yield of cows. This is facilitated by machine milking machines designed specifically for such work. The conclusion of experts about this is unequivocal: using a good machine, you can increase the milk productivity of the heifers.
Remember that milk from cows is produced to feed calves. But, if you properly organize the process of milking, you do not have to worry about how many months it will be gone. You will be able to receive it all year round and in large volumes.
Today, dairy production in Russia is reaching a new level. Due to the increase in prices for imported goods, the demand for domestic products is increasing, which has a positive effect on farmers' profits.
This information can help you in organizing dairy production, so save it by making a repost record.
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